跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(54.172.135.8) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/01/18 14:37
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林銘信
研究生(外文):Ming-Hsin Lin
論文名稱:比較雲南白藥與維生素K1對於犬隻誘發warfarin慢性中毒的凝血效果
論文名稱(外文):Comparism of the coagulation effects between Yunnan Baiyaoand Vitamin K1in the warfarin induced chronic intoxicated dogs.
指導教授:茅繼良
指導教授(外文):Chi-Liang Mao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:獸醫學系
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:雲南白藥微生素K1殺鼠靈
外文關鍵詞:Yunnan BaiyaoVitamin K1Warfarin
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:527
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
中文摘要
雲南白藥為坊間普遍流傳的外傷用藥,其主要功效為止血癒傷為主。根據文獻指出,犬隻以warfarin 殺鼠劑誘導犬隻急慢性中毒後,以維生素K1治療犬隻,其效果十分顯著。
本論文實驗設計係以warfarin 殺鼠劑誘導犬隻慢性中毒後,分別給予不同劑量雲白藥和維生素K1治療中毒犬隻,檢驗相關的凝血時間等,目的在評估雲南白藥和維生素K1其止血作用的差異。血液凝固檢查的項目:包括凝血酶原時間(prothrombin time:PT)、活化部分凝血活酶時間(activated partial thromboplastin time:APTT)、凝血酶凝固時間(thrombin clotting time:TCT)、纖維素原(fibrinogen)、血小板數目的變化、血漿鈣離子濃度及出血時間(bleeding time:BT)。
在warfarin殺鼠劑誘導犬隻慢性中毒的模式下,不做任何治療的犬隻,於中毒後4天內,全數死亡;而以雲南白藥治療犬隻,則全數存活,足以初步判定雲南白藥確有止血功效。至於實驗的結果,在血液凝固項目 (凝血酶原時間、活化部分凝血活酶時間、凝血酶凝固時間、纖維素原) 檢查方面,雲南白藥的治療效果雖無維生素K1顯著,但仍有療效;在血小板與止血作用相關的檢驗項目(血小板數量、出血時間)方面,雲南白藥組的治療效果,則較維生素K1顯著;在血漿鈣離子濃度檢查,各組之間並無顯著差異。
經由實驗證實,雲南白藥確實具有促進微血管收縮,降低微血管的通透性,減少炎症滲出液;增進血小板數量、活化血小板的功能;輔助肝臟合成維生素K依賴型凝固因子II、VII、IX、X的功效,進而達到顯著止血效果。在warfarin殺鼠劑誘導犬隻慢性中毒的模式下,雲南白藥具有顯著療效,因此臨床上可使用雲南白藥於 warfarin殺鼠劑中毒的治療及車禍等外科手術的止血。
未來將可進一步研究,究竟雲南白藥是透過何種機制來輔助肝臟合成凝固因子、促進血小板增生及活化血小板。此外,也可以進一步分析,究竟雲南白藥中,何種成份參與止血作用,且其具有較顯著的效果。
Abstract
Yunnan Baiyao is one of the most popular Chinese traditional medicine which is very useful to stop external bleeding and help wound healing . It has been reported that Vitamin K1 is helpful to treat warfarin toxicated dogs.
The goal of our experiments is to determine whether Yunnan Baiyao has the same function as Vitamin K1 to stop internal bleeding in warfarin toxicated dogs . By observing and comparing the prothrombin time (PT) , activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) , thrombin clotting time (TCT) , fibrinogen concentrations , platelet numbers , plasma calcium concentrations and the bleeding time of both Yunnan Baiyao and Vitamin K1 treated warfarin toxicated (treated)dogs , the relative difference between Yunnan Baiyao and Vitamin K1 in anti-bleeding function can be determined .
In our expeniments , without any treatment , all warfarin treaded dogs died in four days , however , every dogs in the Yunnan Baiyao treated group survived. This result indicated that Yunnan Baiyao has a significant effect in reversing the toxicity of warfarin . Our results indicated that Yunnan Baiyao has better performance than Vitamin K1 in increasing the number of platelet and decreasing the bleeding time . It also acted well but not as good as Vitmin K1 in the items of PT , APTT , TCT , and fibrinogen . Finally , they had the same effects in increasing blood calcium .
Our observations prove that Yunnan Baiyao does has anti-bleeding function by increasing vascular contraction , decreasing vascular permeability , reducing inflammatory exudates , increasing platelet activation and its number , and increasing synthesis of coagulative factor I , VII , IX , and X in the liver . Therefore , we suggest that Yunnan Baaiyao can be adopted in treating warfarin toxication and accidental truma bleeding .
According to our results , it is interesting to understand why Yunnan Baiyao can improve the synthesis of coagulative factors in the liver, increase the number and activation of platelet . We can also see the future direction in determining the actual components which participate in the coagulative cascade .
目錄·························································Ⅰ
附圖目錄·····················································Ⅳ
附表目錄·····················································Ⅶ
中文摘要·····················································Ⅸ
英文摘要·····················································Ⅹ
第一章 緒言··················································1
第二章 文獻探討··············································3
第一節 雲南白藥·············································3
一、雲南白藥的由來············································3
二、雲南白藥的成分············································3
三、雲南白藥的功效與主治·····································12
四、雲南白藥的性狀與劑型·····································12
五、雲南白藥的規格···········································12
六、雲南白藥的用法與用量·····································12
七、雲南白藥的副作用與注意事項·······························12
八、雲南白藥的臨床驗證·······································13
第二節 維生素 K1···········································18
一、維生素K1 的由來··········································18
二、維生素K1 的構造··········································18
三、維生素K1 的作用機序······································18
四、維生素K1 的需求量········································19
第三節 Warfarin············································21
一、Warfarin的由來···········································21
二、Warfarin的構造···········································21
三、Warfarin的作用機制·······································21
四、Warfarin 的代謝··········································23
五、Warfarin 中毒的臨床症狀··································25
第四節 血液凝固相關檢查····································26
一、止血機制·················································26
二、凝血酶原時間(Prothrombin time)···························28
三、活化部分凝血活酶時間(Activated partialthromboplastintime)29
四凝血酶凝固時間(Thrombin clotting time)·····················30
五、纖維素原(Fibrinogen)·····································31
六、出血時間(Bleeding time)··································32
七、血小板數量···············································33
7-1.血小板的構造·········································33
7-2.血小板的作用·········································34
7-3.血小板減少的原因 ········· ··························35
八、血漿鈣離子···············································36
第三章 實驗材料與方法·······································38
第一節 實驗材料··············································38
一、實驗動物·············································38
二、儀器·············································38
三、試劑及藥品·······································38
第二節 實驗方法··············································39
一、實驗分組·········································40
二、凝血酶原時間測定·································40
三、活化部分凝血活酶時間測定·································41
四、凝血酶凝固時間測定·······························42
五、纖維素原測定·····································42
六、出血時間測定·····································43
七、血小板數量測定···································43
八、血漿鈣離子·······································43
九、資料分析·········································43
第三節 實驗設計··············································44
一、 雲南白藥的劑量······································44
二、 實驗流程圖··········································51
第四章 結果·················································52
第一節 凝血酶原時間實驗結果··································52
第二節 活化部分凝血活酶時間實驗結果··························58
第三節 凝血酶凝固時間實驗結果································63
第四節 纖維素原實驗結果········ ····························69
第五節 出血時間實驗結果······································75
第六節 血小板數量實驗結果····································81
第六節 血漿鈣離子實驗結果····································85
第五章 討論·················································89
參考文獻·····················································91
····························································100
參 考 文 獻
[1] 王本余、張巧敏。雲南白藥治療壞死型淋巴結體會。實用中西醫結 合雜誌。8(10): 582。1995。
[2] 王玉璽。雲南白藥酊治療家畜乳癰。中獸醫醫藥雜誌。(6): 36。 1997。
[3] 王海波、周艾琳。雲南白藥外敷治療會陰切口感染23例。中國中西醫結合雜誌。15(5): 273。1995。
[4] 代加莉、鐘雪梅、黃鳳書。雲南白藥治療放環後月經量多經期延長38例。中國中醫藥科技。 6(6): 409。1999。
[5] 呂車鳳、陳瑞雄、杜杰憲。邱鴻英、方文祥、戴東發、趙長勝、李宏智。血流停止、止血劑、抗凝血劑及纖維蛋白分解劑。獸醫藥理與治療學上冊。431-446。1985。藝軒圖書出版社。台北。
[6] 呂車鳳、陳瑞雄、杜杰憲。邱鴻英、方文祥、戴東發、趙長勝、李宏智。華福林及其同屬物。獸醫藥理與治療學下冊。1078-1082。1985。藝軒圖書出版社。台北。
[7] 呂明方、王福大。冰片。常用中藥圖鑑。321。1999。渡假出版社。台北。
[8] 呂明方、王福大。麝香。常用中藥圖鑑。296。1999。渡假出版社。台北。
[9] 沈永紹。止血作用。獸醫實驗診斷學提要修增第三版。149-174。1993。華香園出版社。台北。
[10] 何敏夫。血小板機能檢查。血液學。467-488。2001。合記圖書出版社。台北。
[11] 何敏夫。初步止血之檢查。血液學。489-508。2001。合記圖書出版社。台北。
[12] 何敏夫。凝固作用。血液學。509-528。2001。合記圖書出版社。台北。
[13] 何敏夫。凝固學檢查。血液學。529-562。2001。合記圖書出版社。台北。
[14] 何敏夫。初步止血之檢查。血液學。489-508。2001。合記圖書出版社。台北。
[15] 李建民、張玉先、張洪英、馬寶銀、段玉林。雲南白藥治療新生兒臍炎75例。中國中西醫結合雜誌。13(2): 118。1993。
[16] 李曉樓。口服雲南白藥治療小兒急性細菌性痢疾46例。中國中西醫結合雜誌。13(1): 50。1993。
[17] 余傳隆、陳榕影、魏菊仙。雲南白藥。實用名方新用臨床手冊。521-527。1996。
[18] 金同珍。雲南白藥。中國藥物大辭典上冊。153。1991。中國醫藥科技出版社。台北。
[19] 吳鉦鎰。獨定子。雲南中藥資源名錄。113。1993。科學出版社。北京。
[20] 吳鉦鎰。重樓。雲南中藥資源名錄。639。1993。科學出版社。北京。
[21] 吳鉦鎰。披麻草。雲南中藥資源名錄。647。1993。科學出版社。北京。
[22] 吳應寧。1983。warfarin。獸醫急診手冊。241-242。1983。藝軒圖書出版社。台北。
[23] 周世杰、呂松芬。雲南白藥治療輸液性靜脈炎。19(7): 438。1994。中國中藥雜誌。
[24] 胡明燦、江克明。雲南白藥不良反應及其探討。中國醫院藥學雜誌。11(8): 36。1989。
[25] 徐興妹、梁勇。雲南白藥治療褥瘡療效觀察。中國醫院藥學雜誌。15(8): 379。1995。
[26] 高本釗。三七。新編中藥大辭典。56-58。1982。新文豐出版社。台北。
[27] 高本釗。冰片。新編中藥大辭典。1319-1322。1982。新文豐出版社。台北。
[28] 高本釗。草烏。新編中藥大辭典。1621-1624。1982。新文豐出版社。台北。
[29] 敬海生、張明欣。雲南白藥局部應用治療外傷性前房積血。中西醫結合眼科雜誌。13(3): 171。1995。
[30] 陳岩、邵水生。新編中國藥典中藥彩色圖集。282。1991。旺文社股份有限公司。台北。
[31] 陳岩、邵水生、劉廣第。重樓。新編中國藥典中藥彩色圖集。338。1996。旺文社股份有限公司。台北。
[32] 陳紹禮。雲南白藥治療閉合性軟組織損傷240例。中級醫刊。30(11): 54。1995。
[33] 陳紹禮。雲南白藥治療四肢開放性軟組織損傷療效觀察。中級醫刊。30(3): 46-47。1995。
[34] 陳雲紅、施鶴高、王玉梅。近年來三七的藥理研究進展。中草藥。26(3): 160-162。1995。
[35] 盛承楠。為雲南白藥說幾句內行話。新中藥。(2)21-30。1974。中國藥用植物協會。台北。
[36] 盛承楠。雲南白藥中「保險子」詳考(中)。新中藥。(5)10-15。1975。中國藥用植物協會。台北。
[37] 曾秋隆。止血障礙。曾氏獸醫血液學。264-284。1994。藝軒圖書出版社。台北。
[38] 張炳鑫、俞長芳。雲南白藥。中成藥實用手冊。97。1990。
[39] 張蘭昌。草烏頭。中藥大辭典第三冊。419-425。1981。昭人出版社。台中。
[40] 劉國應。中世藥治療帶狀泡疹綜述。中成藥。16(3): 29。1994。
[41] 蔡靖彥。止血劑。常用藥品手冊。431-444。2000。玉山書局。嘉義。
[42] 蔡靖彥。2000。抗凝血劑。常用藥品手冊。445-457。2000。玉山書局。嘉義。
[43] 劉麗萍。雲南白藥外敷治療術後切口延期癒合11例。中國中西醫結合雜誌。14(2): 114。1994。
[44] 蕭培根。白曼陀螺。中國本草圖錄-卷二。168。1988。台灣商務印書館。台北。
[45] 蕭培根。金鐵鎖。中國本草圖錄-卷二。38。1988。台灣商務印書館。台北。
[46] 蕭培根。重樓。中國本草圖錄-卷五。207。1989。台灣商務印書館。台北。
[47] 戴新民。金鐵鎖。彩色生草藥圖譜第三輯。402-403。1984。啟業書局。
[48] 戴新民。蒙自藜蘆。彩色生草藥圖譜第六輯。298-299。1984。啟業書局。
[49] 顏焜熒。三七。原色常用中藥圖鑑。67。1999。南天書局。台北。
[50] 顏焜熒。草烏頭。原色常用中藥圖鑑。81-82。1999。南天書局。台北。
[51] 羅崇誠。犬實驗以warfarin 誘導中毒和Vitamin K1治療的研究。。國立中興大學獸醫學系碩士論文。1-96。1994。台中。
[52] Aguinagh MP, Wright CJ, Roa PD, Terrell F, Tumer EA, Houston M. Molecular diagnosis and characterization of Hb Zurich [beta63(E7) His-->Arg]] carriers in a Kentucky family. Hemoglobin. 22 (5-6): 509-515, 1998.
[53] Andrews RK, Shen Y, Gardiner EG, Dong J, Lopez JA, Berndt MC. The glycoprotein lb-lX-V complex in platelet adhesion and signaling. Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 82: 357-364, 1999.
[54] Ashby J, Doerrer NG, Flamm FG, Harris JE, Hughes DH, Johannsen FR, Lewis SC, Krivanek ND, Mccarthy JF, Moolenaar RJ. A scheme for classifying carcinogens. Regulatory Toxicology Pharmacology. 12(3 Pt 1): 270-295, 1990.
[55] Baglin T. Management of warfarin (coumarin) overdose. Blood. 12: 91-98, 1998.
[56] Bailey K, Bettelheim FR. Action of thrombin in the clotting of fibrinogen. Nature. 167:233-234, 1951.
[57] Bos OJ, Remijn JP, Fischer MJ, Wilting J, Janssen LH. Location and characterization of the warfarin binding site of human serum albumin. A comparative study of two large fragments. Biochemical Pharmacology. 37(20): 3905-3909, 1988.
[58] Bertucci C, Canepa A, Ascoli GA, Guimaraes LF, Felix G. Site I on human albumin: differences in the binding of (R)- and (S)-warfarin. Chirality. 11(9): 675-679, 1999.
[59] Breckenridge AM, Cholerton S, Hart JA, Park BK, Scott AK. A study of the relationship between the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of the 4-hydroxycoumarin anticoagulants warfarin, difenacoum and brodifacoum in the rabbit. British Journal of Pharmacology. 84(1): 81-91, 1985.
[60] Brown PM, Chana JS. Interference by warfarin in the detection of carbamate insecticides on thin-layer chromatograms by an esterase inhibition technique. Journal of Chromatography. 169(1): 407-408, 1979.
[61] Cain D, Hutson SM, Wallin R. Asembly of the Warfarin-sensitive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase enzyme complex in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The Journal of Biological Chemistry.272: 29068-29075, 1997.
[62] Chan TY, Lui SF, Chung SY, Luk S, Critchley JA. Adverse interaction between warfarin and indomethacin. Drug Safety. 10(3): 267-269, 1994.
[63] Cheung WK, Levy G. Comparative pharmacokinetics of coumarin anticoagulants. XLIX: Nonlinear tissue distribution of S-warfarin in rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 78(7): 541-546, 1989.
[64] Cines DB, Pollak ES, Buck CA, Loscalzo J, Zimmerman GA, Mcever RP, Pober JS, Wick TM, Konkle BA, Schwartz BS, Bamathan ES, Mccrae KR, Hug BA, Schmidt AM, Stem DM. Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders. Blood. 91(10): 3527-3561. Review, 1998.
[65] Covell DG, Abbrecht PH, Powers WF. Changes in the pharmacology of warfarin during long-term administration in dogs. 103(2): 272-283, 1984.
[66] Douglas AT. Ccagulation and Bleeding Disorders: Review and Update. Clinical Chemistry. 46(8): 1260-1269, 2000.
[67] Forbes CD, Thomson C, Prentice CR, Mcnicol GP, Mcewan AD. Experimental warfarin poisoning in the dog, Platelet function, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 83(2): 173-180, 1973.
[68] Fuss C, Palmaz JC, Sprague EA. Fibrinogen: structure, function, and surface interactions. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 12(6): 677-682. Review, 2001.
[69] Gallop PM, Lian JB, Hauschka PV. Carboxylated calcium binding proteins and vitamin K. The New England Journal of Medicine. 302: 1460-1466, 1980.
[70] Harrell CC, Kline SS. Oral vitamin K1: an option to reduce warfarin’s activity. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 29: 1228-1232, 1995.
[71] Hermans JJ, Thijssen HH. Comparison of the rat liver microsomal metabolism of the enantiomers of warfarin and 4''-nitrowarfarin (acenocoumarol). Xenobiotica. 21(3): 295-307, 1991.
[72] Hignite C, Uetrecht J, Tschanz C, Azarnoff D. Kinetics of R andS warfarin enantiomers. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 28(1): 99-105, 1980.
[73] Karmali F, Edwards C, Butler TJ, Wynne HA. The influence of (R)- and (S)-warfarin, vitamin K and vitamin K epoxide upon warfarin anticoagulation. Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 84(1): 39-42, 2000.
[74] Lind SE. Prolonged bleeding time. The American Journal of Meddicine. 77(2): 305-12. Review, 1984.
[75] Mammen EF, Fujii Y. Hypercoagulable states.Lab Medica. 20: 611-612, 1989.
[76] Mark WL. Genetic mechanisms for hypersensitivity and resistance to the anticoagulant warfarin. Clinica Chimica Acta. 308: 9-15, 2001.
[77] Mielke CH. Measurement of the bleeding time. Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 52: 210-211, 1984.
[78] Murphy MJ. Rodenticide toxicosis. Kirk’ Current Veterinary TherapyXIII.Edit:
211-212, 2000.
[79] Narayanan MN, Lucas SB. A genetic algorithm to improve a neural network to predict a patients response to warfarin. Methods of Information in Medicine. 32: 55-58, 1993.
[80] Neild PJ, Syndercombe-Court D, Keatinge WR. Cold-induced increases in erythrocyte count, plasma cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen of elderly people without a comparable rise in protein C or factor X. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis. 14:54-59, 1994.
[81] O’Reilly RA. Interaction of Several Coumarin Compounds with Human and Canine Plasma Albumin. Molecular Pharmacology.7: 209-218,1970.
[82] Panjehshahin MR, Yates MS, Bowmer CJ. A comparison of drug binding sites on mammalian albumins. Biochemical Pharmacology. 44(5): 873-879, 1992.
[83] Park BK. Warfarin : metabolism and mode of action. Biochemical Pharmacology.37: 19-27, 1988.
[84] Paul D, Roger H, Seung W, Sriram N. Vitamin K and energy transduction:a base strength amplification mechanism. Science. 269(22): 1684-1690, 1995.
[85] Pearce KA, Grimm RH Jr, Rao S, Svendsen K, Liebson PR, Neaton JD, Ensrud K. Population-derived comparisons of ambulatory and office blood pressures. Implications for the determination of usual blood pressure and the concept of white coat hypertension. Archives of Internal Medicine. 152(4): 750-756, 1992.
[86] Possidente CJ, James PD, Cushman M. Evaluation of very low- dose subcutaneous vitamin k during postoperative warfarin therapy. Pharmacotherapy.
21(3): 295-300, 2000. [87] Quick AJ. Determination of prothrombin. America Journal of Medical Science. 190: 501, 1935.
[88] Rao AK. Congenital disorders of platelet function: disorders of signal transduction and secretion. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 316: 69-76, 1998.
[89] Rettie AE, Korzekwa KR, Kunze KL, Lawrence RF, Eddy AC, Aoyama T, Gelbion HV, Gonzalez FJ, Trager WF. Hydroxylation of warfarin by human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P-450: a role for P-4502C9 in the etiology of (S)-warfarin drug interactions. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 5: 54-59, 1992.
[90] Rettie AE, Wienkers LC, Gonzlez FJ, Trager WF, Korzekwa KR. Impaired (S)-warfarin metabolism catalysed by the R144C allele variant of CYP2C9. Pharmacogenetics. 4: 39-42, 1994.
[91] Riess H, Riewald M. The clinical impact of platelet function testing.
Thrombosis Research.74 (S-1): S69-78, 1994.
[92] Rink TJ, Sage SO. Calcium signaling in human platelets. Annual Review of Physiology. 52: 431-446, 1990.
[93] Robert SH, Martin JS, Lewis RG. Evalution of coagulation factor abnormalities in long-acting anticoagulant overdose. Clinical toxicology. 26(3ƀ): 233-248, 1988.
[94] Schafer Al. Biochemical mechanisms of platelet activation. Blood . 74: 1181-95, 1989.
[95] Smith SA, Kraft SL, Lewis DC, Freeman LC. Plasma pharmacokinetics of warfarin enantiomers in cats. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 23: 329-337, 2000.
[96] Surdsmo JS, Fair DS. Relationships among the complement, kinin, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in the inflammatory reaction. Clinical Physiology and Biochemistry 1(2-5): 225-284, 1983.
[97] Suttie JW. Control of clotting factor biosynthesis by Vitamin K1. Federation Proceedings. 28: 1696-1701, 1969.
[98] Thuy LP, Brown JE, Baugh RF, Hougie C. Effects of succinylation and dodecyl, succinylation on bovine factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Thrombosis Research. 18(3-4): 305- 13, 1980.
[99]Toon S, Hokins KJ, Garstang FM, Diquet B, Gill TS, Rowland M. The warfarin-cimetidine interaction: stereochemical considerations. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 21(2): 245-6, 1986.
[100] Walsh Pn. Platelets and factor Xl bypass the contact system of coagulation. Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 82: 234-42, 1999.
[101] White JG, Gerrard JM. Ultrastructural features of abnormal platelets. A review. American Journal of Pathology. 83: 589-632, 1976.
[102] Yacobi A, Levy G. Pharmacokinetics of the warfarin enantiomers in rats.
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics. 2(3): 239-55, 1974.
[103] Yamazaki H, Shimada T. Human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the 7-hydroxylation of R- and S-warfarin enantiomers. Biochemical Pharmacology. 54(11): 1195-203, 1997.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top