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研究生(外文):Jen-Wen Ding
論文名稱(外文):Storage and Transmission Techniques for Wide-Area Continuous Media Streaming
指導教授(外文):Yueh-Min Huang
外文關鍵詞:MultimediaVideo-on-DemandContinuous Media StreamingStorage TechnologyTransmission Technology
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由於連續性媒體需要大量的儲存空間以及高速的傳輸率,連續性媒體伺服器通常使用大量的硬碟。基於兩個實際因素的考量,這些硬碟通常是異質的:第一,當使用大量硬碟的時候,既存的硬碟可能損壞,因而必須引進新的硬碟; 第二,基於可擴充性的設計考量,為了滿足客戶可能逐漸增加的使用需求,系統必須能夠加入新的硬碟,以增加系統的儲存和輸出能力。有鑑於此,本論文提出一個新穎的儲存技術,稱為Resource-Based Striping (RBS)。RBS 結合了wide striping 和 narrow striping 的技術,因此可以得到異質硬碟系統最佳的資料儲存配置,並且很有效率地使用所有異質硬碟的所有資源 (包括儲存空間以及輸出的頻寬)。
本論文也提出一個新穎的點對點的傳輸技術,稱為Packet Permutation (PP)。該技術可用於網際網路上預先壓縮過的連續性媒體的傳輸。PP 的設計目的是用來降低網際網路上『連續性封包遺失現象』對連續性媒體串流所造成的感官上的衝擊。PP與傳統的網路錯誤控制策略(例如:Forward Error Correction 以及Feedback/Retransmission 為基礎的方法) 彼此間的關係是正交且互補的。在做法上,在伺服器端,PP 以特定的方式改變連續性媒體串流的正常傳送順序。在收端,PP 會將這些被改過傳送順序的連續性媒體串流排回正常的順序,再交給上層的應用程式。透過這樣的方式,對每一個連續性媒體流而言,每一個連續性媒體畫面失去較多封包的機率將大為降低。
為了驗證 RBS 和 PP 的效能,本論文進行了一系列的模擬實驗。我們的結果顯示:(1) RBS 的效能遠比傳統同質或異質的連續性媒體資料的striping 的方法要好 (就系統最大可服務的連續性媒體資料流的數目以及可儲存的檔案數目而言); (2) 若要達到某一固定的服務品質,PP 可大幅降低傳統的網路錯誤控制策略所需要付出的代價。
The Internet has been experiencing explosive growth of continuous media (CM) streaming. This growth is expected to continue, and such semi-realtime traffic will form a high portion of the Internet load. The design of a wide-area CM streaming system presents a great number of research challenges. This dissertation focuses on two key technologies that largely determine the overall system performance, namely, the storage and transmission technologies.
Due to the immensity of sizes and the data rate requirements of CM data, CM servers are generally founded on a large number of disks. In practice, it is highly desirable to employ heterogeneous disk-subsystems for two reasons. First, existing disks may fail, especially in an environment with a large number of disks, enforcing the use of new disks. Second, for a scalable server, to cope with the increasing demand of customers, new disks may be needed to increase the server''s storage capacity and throughput. In view of this, this dissertation proposes a novel storage technique, referred to as resource-based striping (RBS), for a large-scale CM server using heterogeneous disk-subsystems. RBS combines wide striping and narrow striping techniques so that it can obtain the optimal stripe allocation and efficiently utilize both the I/O bandwidth and storage capacity of all disks.
This dissertation also proposes a novel robust end-to-end delivery scheme, referred to as packet permutation (PP), for pre-compressed continuous media streams over the Internet. PP is designed to reduce the impact of the bursty loss behavior of the Internet on the perceptual quality of CM streaming. PP is both orthogonal and complementary to traditional error control schemes, such as forward error correction (FEC) and feedback/retransmission-based schemes. At the server side, PP permutes, prior to transmission, the normal packet delivery sequence of CM files in a specific way. The packets are then re-permuted at the receiver side before they are presented to the application. In this way, the probability of losing a large number of packets within each CM frame can be significantly reduced.
The effectiveness of both RBS and PP are validated via a series of trace-driven simulations. Our results show that (1) RBS greatly outperforms the conventional homogeneous or heterogeneous CM striping schemes proposed in the literature, in terms of the number of simultaneous streams supported and the maximum number of files that can be stored, and (2) PP greatly reduces the overhead required by FEC or feedback/retransmission-based schemes to recover the damaged or lost data in order to achieve a predefined quality of service.
2.1.1 Application Server…9
2.1.2 Control Server…11
2.1.3 Data Server…13
2.2.1 Partitioned Servers…14
2.2.2 Externally Switched Servers…16
2.2.3 Fully Switched Servers…17
3.3.1 Overview of RBS…23
3.3.2 Concepts of Striping with Weights…24
3.3.3 RBS Algorithms…28 Data Allocation Algorithm of RBS…28 Changing Workload and Reconfiguration…36
3.3.4 Performance Evaluation…42 Simulation Model…42 Simulation Results…44
4.3.1 General Description of MPEG…60
4.3.2 FEC and Feedback/Retransmission-Based Schemes…62
4.4.1 Basic Concept of PP…65
4.4.2 Packet Permutation Algorithm…69
4.4.3. Conjunction of PP and FEC…74
4.4.4 Adapting to Changing Available Bandwidth…75
4.4.5 Performance Evaluation…76 Simulation Model…76 Simulation Results…78
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