跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(54.91.62.236) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/01/18 00:31
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:楊英如
研究生(外文):Yin-ju, Yang
論文名稱:文章難易度及主題熟悉度對英語學習者聽力理解影響之個案研究
論文名稱(外文):A Case Study of the Effects of Text Difficulty and Topic Familiarity on EFL Listening Comprehension
指導教授:高實玫高實玫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shin-mei Kao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:文章難易度主題熟悉度聽力理解影響
外文關鍵詞:Text DifficultyTopic FamiliarityEFL Listening Comprehension
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
  • 點閱點閱:6205
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:1888
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:11
論文名稱:文章難易度及主題熟悉度對英語學習者聽力理解影響之個案研究
校所組別:國立成功大學外國語言文學研究所
畢業時間及題要別:九十學年度第一學期碩士學位論文提要
研究生:楊英如
指導教授:高實玫 博士
論文內容提要:
本研究主旨在探討文章難易度及主題熟悉度對英語學習者聽力理解影響之個案研究。本研究中學生英語聽力的程度,是由GEPT的中級檢定考試的聽力分數來決定。樣本取樣中含三個聽力在平均程度之上的學生及四個聽力在平均程度之下的學生。測量英聽理解度的方法採「立即回想」方式,而資料收集方法則由學生的回想稿內容及訪談內容,二個方式收集。本研究的主要發現摘要如下:
1、四個聽力在平均程度之下的學生,在主題較熟悉的文章得分高於主題不熟悉的文章。而對聽力在平均程度以上的學生而言,單一主題熟悉度的影響並不像聽力較低層次的學生那麼明顯。
2、當一篇文章的語意及句構,超越一個學習者的英聽理解度,文章難易度可能不能對他的聽力理解過程造成任何影響。
3、當一個學習者的英聽能力達到某一定程度時,主題熟悉度在聽力理解過程可能不是那麼具有關鍵性。
4、當一個學習者在英聽過程中,遭遇到bottom-up processing的困難時,他們可能會應用一些top-down processing的方法去補充所漏掉的資訊,而使所聽到的文章合情合理。
總而言之,本研究建議英文老師在決定那一種pre-listening的活動時,應該把他們學生的英聽程度和文章的難易度,考慮進去。而且,英文老師應該給他們的學生一些訓練,去幫助學生成功的使用bottom-up processing。如過果英文老師可以善用各種技巧,英聽教學將不只是一連串的英聽考試,而學生的聽力理解度也可能大幅增加。
Abstract
The study investigated the effects of text difficulty and topic familiarity on EFL listening comprehension. The EFL students’ listening proficiency in the study was determined by the EFL students’ listening scores in the Intermediate Level Test of the GEPT. The sample consisted of three EFL students with an above-average listening level and four EFL students with a below-average listening level.
The measure of the EFL students’ listening comprehension was through the immediate recall and the data were collected in two ways, the recall protocols and the interview. The findings of this study were summarized as follows:
1. The four students with a below-average listening level received higher percentage scores on topic-familiar texts than on topic-unfamiliar texts. For students with an above-average listening level, the sole effect of topic familiarity on their comprehension process was not as obvious as that on the lower-level listeners.
2. When the semantic and syntactic features of a text reach a level beyond an EFL listener’s comprehension proficiency, the text difficulty may not make any difference in the listener’s comprehension process.
3. When an EFL listener’s listening proficiency reaches a certain level, the topic familiarity might not be so critical in the comprehension process.
4. When an EFL listener encountered the bottom-up processing difficulties, they might apply some top-down processing strategies in order to bridge the gap and to make sense of the text.
In conclusion, it is suggested that an EFL teacher should always take their students’ listening proficiency and text difficulty into consideration before deciding to adopt a particular kind of pre-listening activity. Furthermore, it may be necessary for EFL teachers to give their students some training to help them make successful use of the bottom-up processing mode. If EFL teachers can make skillful use of various techniques, the listening instruction will not just be a continuous listening test and the students’ listening comprehension could be greatly enhanced.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Page
Background and Motivation 001
Purpose of the Study 007
Research Questions 008
Significance of the Study 008
Limitations of the Study 009
Definition of Terms 010
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
Background Knowledge 013
Background Knowledge and L2 Reading Comprehension 016
Background Knowledge and L2 Listening Comprehension017
L2 Listening Comprehension Process and Text 022
Difficulty
L2 Listening Strategies and Proficiency Level 024
The Function of Immediate Recall 028
The Application of Immediate Recall 028
Summary 030
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
Subjects 031
Instruments 034
The Selection of Listening Materials 034
The Implementation of the Immediate Recall 040
Pilot Study 040
Procedures 042
A Warm-up Exercise 043
The Implementation of the Formal Task 044
An Interview after the Immediate Recall 045
Data Analysis 046
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
General Results 048
The Effects of Topic Familiarity on the 050
Listening Comprehension of EFL Students at
Different Levels
Discussion 051
The Effects of Text Difficulty on the Listening 053
Comprehension of EFL Students at Different Levels
Discussion 054
The Effects of Text Difficulty on Topic 060
Familiarity in EFL Students’ Listening
Comprehension Process
Discussion 061
How EFL Listeners Construct Their Models of 066
the Listening Text
The Bottom-up Processing 066
The Top-down Processing 071
Three Inference Strategies 072
Two Elaboration Strategies 077
Other Factors 083
Speaking Speed and the Familiarity of 083
Speakers’ Voice
The Previous Listening Experience 084
The Influence of the Individual’s Prior 084
Expectation
The Difficulty in Translating the Target 085
Language into the Native Language
Summary 086
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
SUGGESTIONS
Conclusions 088
Pedagogical Implications 090
Suggestions for Future Research 093
NOTES 095
REFERENCES 096
Appendix A: Jackie Chan 100
Appendix A-1: Jackie Chan 100
Appendix B: Confucius 101
Appendix B-1: Confucius 101
Appendix C: Clare Boothe Luce 102
Appendix C-1 :Clare Boothe Luce 102
Appendix D: Sakuliu 103
Appendix D-1: Sakuliu 103
Appendix E : O. Henry 104
Appendix F : Graph for Estimating Readability-Extended 105
Appendix G : The Five Pieces of Paper for Writing the 106
Recall Protocols
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
3-1 Subjects’ Listening Scores in the GEPT 034
3-2 Comparison of the Four Articles in Length and in 036
Reading Speed
3-3 Comparison of the Four Articles in Difficulty Level 039
4-1 The Total Number of Pausal Units in Each Text 049
4-2 The Percentage Score of the Subjects’ Listening 049
Comprehension
4-3 The Listening Comprehension Percentage Score of the 050
Students with an Above-average Listening Level
4-4 The Listening Comprehension Percentage Score of the 051
Students with a Below-average Listening Level
4-5 The Listening Comprehension Percentage Score of the 053
Students with an Above-average Listening Level
4-6 The Listening Comprehension Percentage Score of the 053
Students with a Below-average Listening Level
4-7 Seven Subjects’ Unfamiliar Words of the Four 057
Listening Texts
4-8 Comparison of the Numbers of Unfamiliar Words 058
4-9 The Percentage Score of the Subjects’ Listening 060
Comprehension
Figure Caption
Figure
3-1 Eighteen Students’ Listening Scores in the GEPT 032
REFERENCES
Anderson, A., & Lynch, T. (1996). Listening. In C. N. Candlin & H. G. Widdowson (Eds.), Language teaching : A scheme for teacher education (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Anderson, R. A. (1984). Role of reader’s schema in comprehension, learning and memory. In R. A. Anderson (Ed.), Learning to read in American schools (pp.243-272). Hillshade, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Anderson, R. C., Pichert, J., & Shirey, L. I. (1979). Effects of the reader’ schemata at different points in time. Urbana: University of Illinois Center for the Study of Reading.
Anderson, R. C., Reynolds, R. E., Schallert, D. L., & Coetz, E.T. (1977). Frameworks for comprehending discourse. American Educational Research Journal, 14, 367-382.
Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
Bernhardt, E. B. (1983). Three approaches to reading comprehension in intermediate German. The Modern Language Journal, 67, 111-115.
Bernhardt, E. B. (1991). Reading development in second language: Theoretical, empirical, and classroom perspectives. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Bernhardt, E. B., & James, C. J. (1987). The teaching and testing of comprehension in foreign language learning. In D. W. Birckbichler (Ed.), Proficiency, policy, and professionalism in foreign language education (pp.65-81). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook.
Bransford, J. D., & Johnson, M. K. (1972). Contextual prerequisities for understanding some investigations of comprehension and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 717-726.
Brown, G., Anderson, A. H., Shadbolt, N., & Lynch, T. (1985). Listening comprehension. Edinburgh : Scottish Education Department.
Carrell, P. (1983). Three components of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Language Learning, 33, 183-297.
Carrell, P. (1984a). The effects of rhetorical organization on ESL readers. TESOL Quarterly, 18, 441-469.
Carrell, P. (1984b). Evidence of a formal schema in second language comprehension. Language Learning, 34, 87-112.
Carrell, P. (1987). Content and formal schemata in ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 461-481.
Chiang, C. S., & Dunkel, P. (1992). The effect of speech modification, prior knowledge, and listening proficiency on EFL lecture learning. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 345-374.
Conrad, L. (1985). Semantic versus syntactic cues in listening comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 7, 59-72.
Defillipis, D. A. (1980). A study of the listening strategies used by skillful and unskillful college French students in aural comprehension tasks. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.
Dejean de la Batie, B. (1993). Word boundary ambiguity in spoken French. Dissertation, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
Fry, E. (1977). Fry’s readability graph: Clarifications, validity, and extension to level 17. Journal of Reading, 21, 242-252.
Hayes, J. R. (1989). The complete problem solver. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum.
Johnson, R. E. (1970). Recall of prose as a function of the structural importance of linguistic units. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 12-20.
Johnston, P. H. (1983). Reading comprehension assessment : A cognitive basis. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Long, D. R. (1989). Second language listening comprehension: A schema-theoretic perspective. The Modern Language Journal, 73, 32-41.
Long, D. R. (1990). What you don’t know can’t help you: An exploratory study of background knowledge and second language listening comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 65-80.
Lund, R. J. (1991). A comparison of second language listening and reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 75, 196-204.
Markham, P., & Latham, M. L. (1987). The influence of religion-specific background knowledge on the listening comprehension of adult second —language students. Language Learning, 37, 157-170.
McDonough, S. (1981). Psychology and foreign language teaching. London: Goerge Allen and Unwin .
Mueller, G. (1980). Visual contextual cues and listening comprehension: An experiment. The Modern Language Journal, 64, 335-340.
Murphy, J. M. (1985). Investigation into the listening strategies of ESL college students. Paper, TESOL, New York.
O’Malley, J. M., Chamot A., & Kupper, L. (1989). Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 10, 18-437.
Rost, M., & Ross, S. (1991). Learner use of strategies in interaction: Typology and teachability. Language Learning, 41, 235-273.
Rubin, J. (1994). A review of second language listening comprehension research. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 199-221.
Rumehart, D. E. (1980). Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In R. J. Spiro, B. C. Bruce, & W. E. Brewer (Eds.), Theoretical issues in reading comprehension (pp.33-58). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Rumehart, D. E., & Ortony, A. (1977). The representation of knowledge in memory. In R. C. Anderson, R. J. Spiro, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge (pp.99-135). Hillsdale, N.J. : Erlbaum.
Samuels, S. J. (1984). Factors influencing listening: Inside and outside the head. Theory into Practice, 23, 183-189.
Schmidti-Rinehart, B. C. (1994). The effects of topic familiarity on second language listening comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 179-189.
Steffensen, M. S., Chitra J. D., & Anderson, R. C. (1979). A cross-cultural perspective on reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 15, 10-29.
Vandergrift, L. (1999). Facilitating second language listening comprehension: Acquiring successful strategies. ELT Journal, 53, 168-176.
VanPattern, B. (1989). Can listeners attend to form and content while processing input? Hispania, 72, 409-417.
Weissenreider, M. (1987). Listening to the news in Spanish. The Modern Language Journal, 71, 18-27.
Wolff, D. (1987). Some assumptions about second language text comprehension. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9, 307-326.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top