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研究生:姚希聖
研究生(外文):Shi-sheng Yao
論文名稱:地區產業發展差異之生產環境條件的成本效果探討--台灣縣市地區的實證分析
論文名稱(外文):Cost Effects of Public Capital、Agglomeration Economies、and Accessibility on Local Industrial Development Disparities--A Case Study of the Counties in Taiwan
指導教授:姜渝生姜渝生引用關係王小娥王小娥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-sheng ChiangJudy Shaw-er Wang Chiang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:都市計劃學系
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:都市規劃學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:227
中文關鍵詞:公共資本聚集經濟路網可及性Translog成本函數總要素生產力
外文關鍵詞:public capitalagglomeration economyroad-network accessibilityTranslog cost functiontotal factor productivity
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:11
  • 點閱點閱:1989
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:17
摘 要
本研究採以內生成長理論的觀點,將可能影響產業生產效率之公共資本存量、聚集經濟與可及性等條件,視為廣義的投入要素。並利用生產函數與成本函數之對偶定理,將第一項條件視為廠商生產過程中不用直接付費之投入、後二項則視為影響廠商營運之環境技術條件,來建立引入此三項條件之產業成本函數。本研究以國富調查資料為基礎,透過中央與省政府重大公共投資之縣市分派、及利用縣市政府的歲出決算資料,估計出各縣市經濟性與社會性之公共資本存量;由地區發展之相關社經資料,以主成份方法建立聚集經濟指標;並由省級以上層級公路的路網與相關之交通資料,建立路網可及性指標;再加上工商普查之地區產業經營概況資料,來建立Translog型態之地區產業成本函數。經由成本函數的校估結果,本研究除分析商業、運倉通信製造業、及服務業等產業相關的生產特性、各項生產環境條件對產業的影響效果、及估計各產業總要素生產力變動與成因貢獻效果外,並就此等影響效果,比較分析其於產業間與地區間之差異。
本研究發現各產業的規模報酬約介於1.27至1.92之間。在商業或服務業上,經濟性公共資本與勞動力和資本要素皆為替代關係、社會性公共資本則均為互補關係;在運倉通信製造業方面,經濟性公共資本與二要素皆為互補關係、社會性公共資本與二要素則為替代關係。產業單位廠商之公共資本的影子價格,以運倉通信製造業之社會性公共資本的0.0452元最大、而以商業之經濟性公共資本的0.00058元最小。三類產業之技術變動均呈非中立性。商業與服務業具有公私部門要素擴大效果,但無聚集經濟增大與路網可及性改善之擴大效果;而運倉通信製造業除具有要素擴大效果外,也具有路網可及性改善之擴大效果。三產業的總要素生產力(TFP)成長率,以商業民國75年至80年的成長率0.4076最大、而以運倉通信製造業民國80年至85年的成長率0.0544最小。各群地區產業之TFP成長的貢獻來源有明顯的差異。例如在商業地區發展程度較強的前二群,其成長的來源包括規模經濟、技術變動、經濟性公共投資、與聚集經濟的擴大;而在發展程度較弱的後三群地區,則僅包括規模經濟、經濟性公共投資。又如服務業方面,聚集經濟的擴大僅對台北縣市、台中市、與高雄市以外地區,具有提升該產業TFP成長的貢獻效果。
有關生產環境條件對產業與地區發展程度之影響差異,本研究發現的重要特性包括:經濟性公共投資對商業與服務業具有明顯提升產業生產效率的效果;聚集經濟節省產業生產成本的效果,對商業似有地區發展程度須達最小門檻、對服務業則似有地區發展程度須不超過達最大門檻,方才顯現的特性;社會性公共投資對運倉通信製造業具有明顯提升產業生產效率的效果,且其效果似有隨地區產業發展程度的降低而遞增的變化特性。此外,路網可及性的成本節省效果,僅在運倉通信製造業較為明顯,且在該產業發展程度較弱地區,其效果似有愈發明顯的特性。有鑑於生產環境條件對產業與地區的影響效果並不相同,因此本研究建議政府於地方發展之規劃時,似應思考地區之發展特性,針對地方,選擇策略性產業研擬其中短期之發展策率。
關鍵字:公共資本、聚集經濟、路網可及性、Translog成本函數、總要素生產力
Abstract
This study, based on the endogenous growth theory, constructs the industrial cost function by introducing three input factors including the public capital stocks, the agglomeration economy, and the accessibility that may affect production efficiency. Adopting the theorem of duality, the first factor, i.e. the public capital stocks, is treated as an unpaid factor of production and the last two factors are treated as the environment technology conditions affecting operations of firms. The data for empirical analysis is based on the Wealth Census of Taiwan where public economic and social capital stocks for counties in Taiwan are estimated by the distribution of major public investment to counties for central authority and provincial government and the annual expenditure of counties. Through the socioeconomic data for regions to establish the index of agglomeration economies by principal analysis, the road-network and traffics for roads above provincial level to establish the index of road-network accessibility, and the data of industrial operations for regions collecting by the Industrial & Commercial Census. The industrial cost function of Translog function type is constructed. The estimation results are used to analyze the effects that those of production environment conditions affect industrial production efficiency for business, transportation-communication & manufacturing, and services industry.
Through the empirical analysis, the return to scale for industries are between 1.27 and 1.92 in Taiwan. It is found that the relationship for public economic capital to labors and that for public economic capital to capital factors are substitute but those for public social capital to labors and to capital factors are complementary for industries of business or services, while the relationships for public economic capital to those two kinds of factors are complementary but those for public social capital are substitute respectively for transportation-communication & manufacturing. In relation to the shadow price of public capitals for unit firm, the largest is 0.0452 in new Taiwan dollars for public economic capital of transportation-communication & manufacturing, while the least is 0.00058 for social public capital of business. It is found that the technological change of each industry is not Hick''s neutral. For business during the period of 1986~1991, the growth rate of total factor productivity (TFP), which arrives at 0.4076, is the largest among industries, while that for transportation-communication & manufacturing, arriving at 0.0544, is the least respectively.
By comparisons between county clusters for industries, it is shown that the growth rates of TFP for clustered regions differ significantly and that the effect of production environment conditions on industrial production depends on the development degree of regions. For business as an example, in the former two clusters of counties, the main contributions to TFP growth are the effects of scale economies, technological change, public economic investment, and agglomeration economies, while, in the last three clusters of counties, sources to the growth rate of TFP include only in scale economies and in public economic capital. Another example is the services, the magnification of agglomeration economies contributes to the increase in the growth rate of TFP only in regions besides Taipei, Taichung, and Kaoshung.
About the disparities in the effect of production environment conditions on development degree for regions, some important properties are found. These include: the production efficiency is significantly raised by the public economic investment for business and services; considering about the effect for agglomeration economies in saving production cost, the property seems significant on condition that, for business, the development degree for regions have to arrive at the lowest threshold of development degree while that for services cannot go beyond the highest threshold; the production efficiency of transportation-communication & manufacturing is significantly raised by public social investment, and the effect increases as the development degree of regions decreases; and the effect of road-network accessibility in saving production cost is significant only for transportation- communication & manufacturing, and the effect is stronger if the region is where this kind of industry is relatively inferior. In view of disparities in effect of production environment conditions on industries and regions, it is suggested that the short-run and middle-run development projects should be reevaluated in considering the spatial characteristics among regions.
Key words: public capital, agglomeration economies, road-network accessibility, Translog cost function, total factor productivity
目  錄
第一章 緒論
1.1 研究動機與目的 1-1
1.2 研究內容與方法 1-3
第二章 相關理論與文獻回顧
2.1 地區發展條件與影響之相關文獻回顧 2-1
2.2 生產函數、對偶理論、與成本函數 2-17
2.3 外在環境因素影響之文獻回顧 2-21
第三章 生產環境條件引入成本函數之理論模型
3.1 地區生產環境條件的界定與影響 3-1
3.1.1 引入之地區生產環境條件 3-1
3.1.2 地區生產環境條件的影響與指標界定 3-2
3.2 地區生產環境條件引入的成本函數設定 3-5
3.2.1 地區產業成本函數之設定 3-5
3.2.2 產業成本函數有關之檢定 3-10
3.3 產業生產特性與生產環境條件影響之分析方法 3-13
3.3.1 產業生產特性分析 3-13
3.3.2 生產環境條件之影響 3-13
3.3.3 產業總要素生產力之估計方法 3-22
第四章 縣市地區生產環境資料構成與發展分析
4.1 生產環境條件指標的建構 4-1
4.1.1 地區基盤設施服務水準 4-1
4.1.2 地區經濟活動聚集程度 4-9
4.1.3 縣市路網可及性 4-14
4.2 地區產業的資料整理與發展分析 4-16
4.3 縣市地區的發展特性與發展差異分析 4-24
4.3.1 縣市地區分群指標的篩選 4-25
4.3.2 產業地區分群之縣市分佈與發展特性 4-25
第五章 地區產業成本函數校估與生產特性分析
5.1 產業生產特性差異的分析 5-1
5.1.1 成本函數校估的聯立體系 5-1
5.1.2 產業生產特性的差異檢定 5-2
5.2 產業成本函數校估及正規條件的檢定 5-6
5.3 地區產業生產特性分析 5-9
5.3.1 各產業地區分群之縣市分佈 5-10
5.3.2 要素價格變動對成本之影響 5-10
5.3.3 私部門要素使用的關係 5-12
5.3.4 公共資本存量與要素的使用關係 5-17
5.3.5 生產環境條件之技術變動影響效果 5-37
第六章 產業總要素生產力變動與貢獻效果分析
6.1 總要素生產力的估計方法 6-1
6.1.1 總要素生產力定義 6-1
6.1.2 總要素生產力變動之估計方法 6-2
6.2 產業總要素生產力變動與貢獻效果分析 6-4
6.2.1 產業與生產環境變動情況分析 6-4
6.2.2 產業之產出與生產環境條件成本彈性分析 6-5
6.2.3 產業總要素生產力變動與貢獻效果分析 6-6
6.3 總要素生產力變動與貢獻效果之地區差異分析 6-7
6.3.1 商業總要素生產力變動與貢獻效果之地區差異分析 6-7
6.3.2 運倉通信製造業總要素生產力變動與貢獻效果之地區差異分析 6-12
6.3.3 服務業總要素生產力變動與貢獻效果之地區差異分析 6-17
第七章 結論與建議
7.1 結論 7-1
7.2 建議 7-11
參考文獻 參-1
附 錄
附錄4-1 中央與省政府主辦重大建設決算之縣市分派表 附4-1-1
附錄4-2 22縣市民國75、80、85年路網旅行時間對稱矩陣 附4-2-1
附錄4-3 22縣市民國75、80、及85年產業經營概況 附4-3-1
附錄4-4 各產業縣市分五群顯著變數平均數檢定ANOVA表 附4-4-1
附錄5-1 三產業之地區三期樣本平均數計算之成本彈性 附5-1-1
附錄5-2 三產業各縣市三期樣本平均數計算之Hessian距陣之特徵值 附5-2-1
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