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研究生:吳政昭
研究生(外文):Cheng Chao Wu
論文名稱:以尿中TTCA探討嫘縈絲工廠勞工二硫化碳暴露之生物偵側
論文名稱(外文):Using urinary TTCA to investigate the biological monitoring of carbon disulfide exposure among the workers in a rayon factory
指導教授:張火炎張火炎引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ho-Yuan Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:二硫化碳生物偵測半衰期迴歸累積
外文關鍵詞:Carbon disulfidebiological monitoringhalf-liferegressionaccumulation
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摘要
二硫化碳在工業上應用十分廣泛,長期暴露於二硫化碳,可導致神經系統、生殖系統及心臟血管系統方面等疾病,由於二硫化碳對人體健康影響頗大,因此有必要對二硫化碳之暴露進行評估並加以監控。在評估暴露量方面主要可分為環境偵測及生物偵測,由於外在暴露量與真正進入人體之實際劑量會受到防護具佩戴或或個體間差異影響而有所不同,使得以生物偵測來評估真實二硫化碳的暴露劑量可能比僅以個人採樣之結果適合。目前ACGIH對CS2職業暴露之建議BEI值為工作後尿中5 mg/g Cr. TTCA濃度。過去許多CS2-TTCA之相關研究,暴露-劑量關係式結果不盡相同,且鮮少對職場上長期二硫化碳暴露累積情形進行探討,因此本研究之目的在於利用TTCA來探討1.不同工作類別之本勞及外勞其尿中TTCA濃度是否有差異。2.尿中TTCA濃度與暴露之空氣濃度之關係。3.尿中TTCA之半衰期。4.尿中TTCA是否產生累積之情形。5.未校正及以creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度在CS2生物偵測上之適用性。本研究以中部某嫘縈絲工廠紡絲部門勞工為對象,連續五天進行兩位本國勞工及六位外國勞工之個人採樣及六位本勞及七位外勞之上下班尿液採樣,並分析空氣中二硫化碳濃度及尿中TTCA濃度以進行研究。結果顯外勞尿中TTCA濃度明顯高於本勞。經由未校正之尿中TTCA濃度推算之結果發現本勞尿中TTCA濃度的半衰期為6.58小時,外勞為7.44小時,全體之中位數為6.80小時。而在經creatinine校正後之尿中TTCA濃度推算之結果發現本勞尿中TTCA濃度的半衰期為7.83小時,外勞為7.97小時,全體之中位數為7.83小時。二硫化碳暴露濃度與尿中TTCA濃度之相關性方面,原始濃度中經creatinine校正部分,暴露濃度與工作後及工作前後尿中TTCA濃度都具統計相關,其r值皆為0.48 (P<0.01)。以濃度取對數值後在creatinine方面同樣發現工作後之尿中TTCA濃度及工作前後之TTCA濃度差都與空氣中CS2之暴露達統計上之關係,r值分別為0.50及0.43 (p值皆小於0.01)。在累積情形方面,在未校正尿中TTCA濃度部分,外勞部分及全體來看皆具有顯著之累積情形,其累積速率分別為0.03 (P<0.01)及0.02 (P<0.01) mg/L/hr。經creatinine校正部分只有外勞具有顯著之累積情形,其累積速率為0.02 (P<0.001) mg/g Cr./hr,因此若每天工作十二個小時則會在體內會產生累積,其累積速度約為0.74mg/g Cr./天或0.43mg/L/天。根據全體之工作後尿中TTCA濃度與CS2暴露濃度之迴歸方程式,以原始濃度及濃度取對數值後推估暴露於10 ppmCS2之下,尿中TTCA濃度分別為4.86 mg/g Cr.及4.57 mg/g Cr.,與ACGIH所訂定之BEI值5 mg/g Cr.相近。在進行本外勞間差異性、尿中TTCA與CS2暴露濃度相關性及尿中TTCA累積性的分析時,經creatinine校正之TTCA濃度其敏感度在差異性及相關性分析的敏感度都較未校正之TTCA為優,只有在累積性分析時略遜於未校正之部分,因此本研究建議以尿中TTCA作為生物指標時,應以creatinine進行尿中TTCA之校正。

Abstract
Carbon disulfide (CS2) is widely used in many industries. Overdose exposure to CS2 can result in the damages of the neurological, reproductive, and cardiovascular systems. Thus, it becomes very important to better understand the exposure levels of CS2 among workers. Biological monitoring is less affected by other factors, which may impede the precise evaluation of the internal dose to exposure, than environmental monitoring. TTCA of 5 mg/g creatinine (Cr.) is the current biological exposure index of CS2 exposure recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). A great number of previous reports showed inconsistent CS2-TTCA relationship. Moreover, very limited studies involved the accumulation of repeated exposure to CS2 in the working place. The aims of this study were as follow: 1. To evaluate the difference of urinary TTCA between local and foreign workers whose work contents are different; 2. To evaluate the relations of CS2 exposure to urinary TTCA; 3. To determine the excretory half-life of CS2 in human body; 4. To evaluate the accumulation of CS2 in human body; 5. To compare the appropriateness of being biological markers of CS2 exposure between creatinine-adjusted and non-adjusted urinary TTCA. Six local workers and seven foreign workers in the spinning department were recruited as the study subjects from a rayon manufacturing factory in middle Taiwan. Airborne CS2 concentrations were monitored for each worker for 5 consecutive days. Each pre-shift and post-shift urine on each day for each worker was collected and TTCA and creatinine were measured. We found urinary TTCA concentrations were significantly larger in foreign workers than those in local workers. The excretory half-life of TTCA was found 6.58 (local workers), 7.44 (foreign workers), and 6.80hrs (total), respectively based on non- adjusted urine. For creatinine-adjusted ones, they are 7.83 (local workers), 7.97 (foreign workers), and 7.83hr (total). Significant correlation of airborne CS2 concentrations to both post-shift creatinine-adjusted urinary TTCA (r=0.48, p<0.01) and the difference of post-shift and pre-shift urinary TTCA concentrations (r=0.48, p<0.01) were found. The associations between CS2 concentrations and post-shift urinary TTCA concentration and the CS2 concentrations and the difference of post-shift and pre-shift urinary TTCA concentrations were also found (r=0.50, p<0.01; r=0.43, p<0.01) while using log-transformed data. We found the average accumulation rates for foreign workers and all workers are 0.03 and 0.02 mg/L/hr based on non-adjusted urine measurements. For creatinine-adjusted ones, the average accumulation rate is 0.02 mg/g Cr./hr for foreign workers. Based on the aforementioned findings, we propose that the accumulation of TTCA will occur while the exposure to CS2 is greater or equal than 12hrs/day and the average accumulation rates are 0.74 mg/g Cr./day and 0.43 mg/L/day. Moreover, we propose urinary TTCA of 4.86 mg/g Cr.(original data) and 4.57 mg/g Cr. (log transform data) will be found in the post-shift urine while TWA exposure equal to 10ppm CS2, very close to the current BEI settings. We also concluded that the creatinine-adjusted measurements for urine are more suitable than non-adjusted ones in the biological monitoring of CS2 occupational exposure.

目錄
摘要…………………………………………………………………….....I
Abstract……………………………………………………………….…III
誌謝……………………………………………………………………...V
目錄……………………………………………………………………..VI
圖目錄……………………………………………………………...…VIII
表目錄…………………………………………………………...………X
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………..1
1-1研究緣起………………………………………………………………………..1
1-2研究目的………………………………………………………………………..2
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………..3
2-1 二硫化碳之物理化學特性………………………………………….…………3
2-2 二硫化碳工業使用範疇…………………………………………….…………4
2-3 二硫化碳之人體吸收、分佈及及代謝…………………………….…………6
2-4 二硫化碳之毒性...………………………………………………….………….6
2-5 二硫化碳之暴露標準……………………………………………….…………8
2-6二硫化碳之生物偵測….…………………………………………….…………8
2-7 毒物動力學…………………………………………………………….…..…10
2-8 尿中TTCA相關文獻探討…………………………………………….……..11
第三章 材料與方法……………………………………………………14
3-1研究設計………………………………………………………………………14
3-2研究對象………………………………………………………………………16
3-3採樣策略及方法………………………………………………………………16
3-4分析方法………………………………………………………………………18
3-5尿中TTCA分析之品保品管規範……………………………………………19
3-6資料分析……………………………………………………….……………...20
第四章 結果與討論……………………………………………………22
4-1 嫘縈絲工廠紡絲場部門勞工暴露狀況……………………….……………..22
4-2 嫘縈絲工廠紡絲場部門勞工上下班之尿中TTCA濃度……….…………..22
4-3 本勞與外勞間、高暴露組與低暴露組間尿中TTCA濃度之差異…….…..23
4-4 尿中TTCA之半衰期………………………………………………….……..27
4-5 尿中TTCA與空氣中濃度之相關性………………………………….……..27
4-6 尿中TTCA累積情形……………………………………………….………..31
4-7 未校正與經creatinine校正之TTCA濃度於數據分析…………….………33
第五章 結論與建議……………………………………………………34
參考文獻………………………………………….…………………….36
圖目錄
圖 2-2-3 紡絲廠工作現場位置圖………………………………………….………41
圖 2-3-1 二硫化碳之代謝途徑…………………………………………………….42
圖 4-2-1 一週中連續工作天未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)變化情形……..…43
圖 4-2-2 一週中連續工作天經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.)變化
情形…………………………………………………………………....…44
圖 4-5-1 當天工作後未校正尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)與暴露濃度(ppm)之關係….45
圖 4-5-2 當天工作後經creatinine校正尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.)與暴露濃度
(ppm)之關係………………………………………………………..........46
圖 4-5-3 隔天天工作前未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)與暴露濃度(ppm)之關
係…………………………………………………………...…….………47
圖 4-5-4 隔天工作前經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.)與暴露濃
度(ppm)之關係…………………………………………………………..48
圖 4-5-5 當天工作前後未校正之尿中TTCA濃度差(mg/L)與暴露濃度(ppm)之
關係…………………………………………………………………...….49
圖 4-5-6 當天工作前後經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.)與暴露濃
度(ppm)之關係…………………………………………..…...………….50
圖 4-5-7 當天工作後未校正尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/L))與Log(暴露濃度(ppm
))之關係………………………………………………………………….51
圖 4-5-8 當天工作後經creatinine校正尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.))與Log(
暴露濃度(ppm))之關係………………………………………………….52
圖 4-5-9 隔天天工作前未校正之尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/L))與Log(暴露濃
度(ppm))之關係………………………………………………………….53
圖 4-5-10隔天工作前經creatinine校正之尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.))與Log(暴露濃度(ppm))之關係…………………………………………….54
圖 4-5-11當天工作前後未校正之尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/L))與Log(暴露濃
度(ppm))之關係………………………………………………………….55
圖 4-5-12當天工作前後經creatinine校正之尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.))
與Log(暴露濃度(ppm))之關係………………………………………….56
圖 4-6-1 一週中連續五天工作前未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)隨開始暴露時
數之累積情形………………………………………………………..…..57
圖 4-6-2 一週中連續五天工作前經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr) 隨開始暴露時數之累積情形……………………………………………58
圖 4-6-3 一週中連續五天工作後未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L) 隨開始暴露
時數之累積情形…………………………………………………………59
圖 4-6-4 一週中連續五天工作後經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.
) 隨開始暴露時數之累積情形………………………………………….60
表目錄
表 2-8-3 文獻中有關CS2暴露與尿中TTCA研究之整理………………………...61
表 4-1-1 嫘縈絲工廠紡絲部門勞工一週中每天CS2之暴露濃度(ppm)分佈,平
均(標準差)……………………………………………………………….62
表 4-2-1 嫘縈絲場勞工一週中每天之上下班未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)
,平均(標準差)……………………………………………………….….63
表 4-2-2 嫘縈絲場勞工一週中每天上下班經creatinine校正尿中TTCA濃
度(mg/g Cr.),平均(標準差)……………………………………………..64
表 4-3-1 本勞與外勞間未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)之差異性………….….65
表 4-3-2 本勞與外勞間經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.)之差異
性…………………………………………………………………………66
表 4-3-3 高暴露組與低暴露組間未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)之差異性…..67
表 4-3-4 高暴露組與低暴露組間經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr)
之差異性…………………………………………………………………68
表 4-4-1 以當日下班前與隔日上班前未校正之尿中TTCA濃度值所推估之半
衰期(hr)………….…………………………………………….…………69
表 4-4-2 以當日下班前與隔日上班前經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度值所
推估之半衰期……………………………………………………………70
表 4-5-1 當天工作後未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)與CS2暴露濃度(ppm)之
關係………………………………………………………………………71
表 4-5-2 當天工作後經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.)與CS2暴露
濃度(ppm)之關係……………………………………………..…………72
表 4-5-3 隔天天工作前未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)與暴露濃度(ppm)之關
係…………………………………………………………………………73
表 4-5-4 隔天工作前經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.)與暴露濃
(ppm)度之關係…………………………………………………………..74
表 4-5-5 當天工作前後未校正之尿中TTCA濃度差(mg/L)與暴露濃度(ppm)之
關係…………………………………………………………………..…..75
表 4-5-6 當天工作前後經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度差(mg/g Cr.)與暴露
濃度(ppm)之關係………………………………………………………..76
表 4-5-7 第五天工作後及減去第一天工作前尿中TTCA濃度與一星期平均暴
露濃度之關係……………………………………………………………77
表 4-5-8 當天工作後未校正之尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/L))與Log(暴露濃度
(ppm))之關係…………………………………………………………….78
表 4-5-9 當天工作後經creatinine校正之尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.))與
Log(暴露濃度(ppm))之關係………………………………………….…79
表 4-5-10隔天天工作前未校正之尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/L))與Log(暴露濃
度(ppm))之關係………………………………………………………….80
表 4-5-11隔天工作前經creatinine校正之尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.))與
Log(暴露濃度(ppm))之關係…………………………………………….81
表 4-5-12當天工作前後未校正之尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/L))與Log(暴露濃
度(ppm))之關係………………………………………………………….82
表 4-5-13當天工作前後經creatinine校正之尿中Log(TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.))
與Log(暴露濃度(ppm))之關係………………………………………….83
表 4-5-14第五天工作後及減去第一天工作前Log(尿中TTCA濃度)與Log(一
星期平均暴露濃度)之關係……………………………………………...84
表 4-5-15工作後尿中TTCA濃度是否超出BEI值(5mg/g Cr.)與暴露濃度是否
超過法定容許值(10ppm)之關係………………………………………..85
表 4-5-16本研究所推估之CS2暴露與尿中TTCA濃度之關係與其它文獻之比
較…………………………………………………………………………86
表 4-6-1 連續五天工作前未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)累積情形…………..87
表 4-6-2 連續五天工作前經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.)累積情
形…………………………………………………………………………88
表 4-6-3 連續五天工作後未校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/L)累積情形…………..89
表 4-6-4 連續五天工作後經creatinine校正之尿中TTCA濃度(mg/g Cr.)累積情
形………………………………………………………………………....90
表4-6-5 外勞天與天之間未校正之尿中TTCA濃度之差異……………………..91
表 4-7 未校正與經creatinine校正之TTCA濃度於數據分析之整理……..…….92

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