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研究生:許淳惠
研究生(外文):Chun-hui Hsu
論文名稱:不同依附型態之醫學院學生與非醫學院學生在死亡焦慮及害怕個人死亡歸因上之差異
論文名稱(外文):The Death Anxiety and Fear of Personal Death among Medical and Non-Medical Students with Different Attachment Styles
指導教授:林維能林維能引用關係柯慧貞柯慧貞引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:行為醫學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:依附型態死亡焦慮害怕個人死亡歸因醫學院學生
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研究目的:
本研究以醫學院學生(實際接觸死亡的經驗較多)與非醫學院學生(實際接觸死亡的經驗較少)代表不同的壓力情境,重新檢驗在不同壓力情境下,依附型態與死亡焦慮和害怕個人死亡歸因之間的關係。
研究方法:
研究設計為二因子受試者間設計;二因子獨變項為依附型態與是否為醫學院學生(壓力情境);依變項為死亡焦慮與害怕個人死亡之歸因。受試者為南部某一所國立大學的學生,共207人,其中92人為醫學院學生,另外112人為非醫學院學生,另外有3人未填答所屬科系別。資料的收集以班級團體施測的方式進行,由受試者填寫關係問卷(Relationship Questionnaire)、死亡焦慮量表(Death Anxiety Scale)、害怕個人死亡量表(Fear of Personal Death Scale)及情境─焦慮量表(State-Trait Anxiety Inventory)及實際接觸死亡經驗問卷等。
研究結果:
1.死亡焦慮量表經因素分析,抽取出兩個因素,分別是逃避死亡因素與害怕死亡因素。害怕個人死亡歸因的量表經因素分析,則抽取出四個因素,分別是害怕死亡的不可控制感、害怕心智活動的停止、擔心自己死亡對親朋造成的影響、擔心自己被遺忘。其中,前兩個因素可歸類至個人層次;後兩個因素則為人際層次。
2.依附型態與是否為醫學院學生(壓力情境)在死亡焦慮之逃避死亡因素上之交互作用達顯著差異(F = 3.418, p < .05);進一步進行單純主要效果的檢驗後發現,在醫學院學生中,不同依附型態的學生在逃避死亡的反應不同。事後比較分析得知,焦慮依附的學生較安全依附的學生表現出較高的逃避死亡分數(F = 5.549, p < .05)。但依附型態與是否為醫學院學生(壓力情境)在死亡焦慮的害怕死亡因素上之交互作用則未達顯著差異;而不同依附型態的學生在害怕死亡因素上,也未達顯著差異。
3.依附型態與是否為醫學院學生(壓力情境)在害怕個人死亡歸因的四個因素上,交互作用皆未達顯著差異。而不同依附型態的學生在害怕個人死亡歸因的人際層次因素上,則達顯著差異。進一步進行單因子變異數分析後發現,安全依附與(逃避)拒斥依附的學生在擔心自己死亡對親朋造成的影響上,達顯著差異(F = 4.507, p < .05);安全依附與(逃避)害怕依附的學生在擔心自己被遺忘上,達顯著差異(F = 3.018, p < .05)。
4.不同依附型態的學生在情境焦慮上(t = -1.917, p < .05)與特質焦慮上(t = -2.847, p < .05),皆達顯著差異。
結論:
1.對醫學院學生而言,不同依附型態的學生在死亡焦慮之逃避死亡因素上,呈現不同的反應模式;在害怕死亡因素上,則不同依附型態的學生並沒有顯著的不同反應。但對非醫學院學生而言,不同依附型態的學生在逃避死亡分數與害怕死亡因素,皆未達顯著差異。此結果支持我們的假設:相較於一般情境,在壓力情境下,不同依附型態個體的不同反應,較容易被觀察到。
2.不同依附型態的學生有不同的害怕個人死亡理由。與安全依附的學生相較,害怕依附的學生較擔心被遺忘;拒斥依附的學生則較不擔心自己死亡對親朋造成的影響。
3.與不安全依附的學生相較,安全依附的學生顯示較佳的情緒適應。
目錄
摘要……………………………………………………………………I
目錄……………………………………………………………………III
表目錄…………………………………………………………………VI
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………VII
1. 緒論…………………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究緣起……………………………………………………………1
1.2 死亡焦慮……………………………………………………………2
1.3 死亡焦慮與焦慮……………………………………………………3
1.4 研究想法概述………………………………………………………4
2. 研究背景……………………………………………………………5
2.1 依附理論……………………………………………………………5
2.1.1 依附理論的源起…………………………………………………5
2.1.2 依附與其他概念的不同…………………………………………6
2.1.3 依附系統…………………………………………………………9
2.2 依附理論的相關研究………………………………………………11
2.2.1 依附的個別差異…………………………………………………11
2.2.2 內在運作模式……………………………………………………15
2.2.3 依附與情緒調節的相關研究……………………………………17
2.2.4 依附與分離焦慮的關研究………………………………………20
2.3 依附與死亡焦慮、害怕個人死亡歸因的相關研究………………22
2.4 研究目的……………………………………………………………24
2.5 研究假設……………………………………………………………25
3. 研究方法……………………………………………………………26
3.1 受試者………………………………………………………………26
3.2 測量工具……………………………………………………………26
3.2.1 依附型態的測量…………………………………………………26
3.2.2 死亡焦慮量表……………………………………………………29
3.2.3 害怕個人死亡歸因量表…………………………………………29
3.2.4 情境─特質焦慮量表……………………………………………30
3.2.5 實際接觸死亡經驗………………………………………………32
4. 研究結果……………………………………………………………33
4.1 各量表的基本分析…………………………………………………33
4.1.1 依附型態的次數分佈……………………………………………33
4.1.2 依附型態與逃避、焦慮兩向度的相關…………………………33
4.1.3 死亡焦慮量表的分析……………………………………………34
4.1.4 害怕個人死亡量表的分析………………………………………35
4.2 針對研究假設進行的分析結果……………………………………37
4.2.1 依附型態、是否為醫學院學生(壓力情境)與死亡焦慮的分析…37
4.2.2 依附型態、是否為醫學院學生(壓力情境)與害怕個人死亡歸因的
分析………………………………………………………………39
4.2.3 依附型態與情境─特質焦慮……………………………………40
5. 討論…………………………………………………………………41
5.1 研究結果討論………………………………………………………41
5.1.1 依附型態、是否為醫學院學生(壓力情境)與死亡焦慮……41
5.1.2 依附型態與害怕個人死亡歸因…………………………………42
5.1.3 依附型態與情境─特質焦慮……………………………………43
5.2 研究限制……………………………………………………………44
5.3 研究貢獻……………………………………………………………45
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………47
附錄A………………………………………………………………………54
附錄B………………………………………………………………………63
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