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研究生:陳建和
研究生(外文):Chien-Ho Chen
論文名稱:TF-BGA錫球接點熱應力和損壞機制之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Thermal Stress and Failure Mechanism of Solder Jointsfor Thin and Fine-pitch Ball Grid Array Package
指導教授:潘文峰
指導教授(外文):Wen-Fung Pan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:工程科學系專班
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:熱應力塑膠封裝錫球陣列元件
外文關鍵詞:PBGATF-BGAthermal stress
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:11
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在電子元件高功率及及輕、薄、短、小化的要求下,熱一直是造成電子元件失效的原因之一,BGA封裝的主要失效原因是作為接點的錫鉛共熔合金(63Sn-37Pb;或稱錫球)的疲勞破裂,這是導因於封裝體不同材料間熱膨脹係數的差異所造成的熱應變。因此本研究著重於溫度及熱應力對BGA封裝錫球接點損壞的影響。文中主要是利用ANSYS軟體分析,經由-55℃至125℃每小時2個循環的溫度負載下,探討銲錫材料的機械塑性行為,並代入Coffin-Manson的經驗公式內求出疲勞的半生期。
分析結果發現錫球的最大應力值皆發生於構裝體最外角落的錫球,而外凸形錫球接點的塑性應變範圍較內凹形大。錫球間距(pitch,指錫球中心點距離)愈小,銲墊面積愈大,錫球的應力較小。
在封裝體中,錫球的幾何形狀,或是其材料性質,多少會對錫球接點的應力結果有所影響;故本文也參考國內外的BGA構裝相關文獻,並取用文獻中對應力、應變量與疲勞壽命較具影響力的參數加以整合分析,藉以預防構裝過程中因為加熱所產生的諸多問題,提高產品的可靠度。
The major reliability issue of Ball Grid Array package is solder joint crack due to thermal expansion mismatch between joined materials.In this study, a nonlinear finite element mode was used to analyze solder joints under the thermally induced stress and failure mechanism during thermal cycling between -55℃ and 125℃. The Ansys software was performed to compute the thermal stress and plastic strain. The Coffin-Manson formula was used to predict the fatigue life.It is found that the maximum von Mises stress occurs at the outest corner solder joint . The plastic strain range of solder joints in hourglass shape is less than the ones in barrel shape. The smaller pitch and the joints with larger solder pad area result in less stress. The reliability of BGA package is dramatically improved by decreasing the peak thermal stress. These empirical correlations would be very useful to design engineers in selecting the electronic packaging materials and their properties to reduce the peak stress on the critical electronic devices.
目 錄

表目錄---------------------------------------------Ⅳ
圖目錄------------------------------------------------ V
符號說明---------------------------------------------VIII

第一章 緒論--------------------------------------------1
1-1、前言----------------------------------------2
1-2、IC封裝簡介----------------------------------2
1-2-1、BGA封裝製程介紹-----------------------2
1-2-2、TF-BGA晶片級尺寸封裝結構---------------4
1-3、研究方向------------------------------------4
1-4、文獻回顧-----------------------------------5
1-5、組織與章節-----------------------------------7

第二章 理論分析-----------------------------------------8
2-1、非線性分析理論-------------------------------8
2-2、彈塑性理論----------------------------------12
2-2-1、應力應變曲線---------------------------12
2-2-2、降伏點規範--------------------------14
2-2-3、塑性變形理論---------------------------15
2-2-4、三維應力應變關係-----------------------18
2-3、疲勞與Coffin-Manson可靠度公式--------------20
2-4、銲錫接點損壞模式----------------------------21

第三章 數值模擬---------------------------------------25
3-1、模型架構----------------------------------25
3-2、基本假設----------------------------------28
3-3、ANSYS有限元素分析軟體---------------------32

第四章 結果分析與討論----------------------------------39
4-1、二維與三維分析結果及討論-------------------39
4-2、不同參數對錫球損壞的影響-----------------------47
4-3、錫球幾何外型對損壞及可靠度結果分析--------------55
4-3-1、不同錫球幾何外型對熱應力及損壞之分析-------56
4-3-2、錫球接點疲勞壽命分析-------------------62

第五章 結論與未來發展-----------------------------------64
5-1、結論----------------------------------------64
5-2、未來發展-----------------------------------65
參考文獻---------------------------------------------67
自述
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[6] Taichi Miyazaki and Kazuhiko Terashima,”The Improvement of Solder Ball Strength Under high Temperature Storage”,IEEE/CPMT Int’l Electronics Manufacturing Technology Symposium,pp.333~341,1994.

[7] J.H. Lau and Yi-Hsin Pao,“Solder Joint Reliability of BGA, CSP, Flip Chip, and Fine Pitch SMT Assemblies”, McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. New York, 1997.

[8] Ho,T.H.,Lee,J.Y.,Lee,R.S.and Lin,A.W.,”Linear Finite Element Stress Simullation of Solder Joints on 225 I/O Plastic BGA Packaging Under Thermal Cycling,”Electronic
Components and Technology Conference, 1995, Proceedings.,45th,pp.930-936.

[9] Bongtae Han and Yifan GUO,”Thermal Deformation Analysis of Various Electronic Packaging Products by Moiré and Microscopic Moiré interferometrv”.ASME Journal of Electronic Packaging,Vol.117,pp.185-191,Sep.1995.

[10]Qiag Yu and Shiratori,M.,”Fatigue-strength Prediction of Microelectronics Solder Joints under Thermal Cylic Loading,”Components,Packaging,and Manufacturing Technology,Part A,IEEE Transactions on[see also Components,Hybrids,and Manufacturing Technology,IEEE Transactions on] Volume:203,Sept.1997,PP.266-273.

[11] 陳正宗,林信立,邱垂鈺,全湘偉,黃志勇,韓文仁,秦無忝,1996, 有 限元素分析與工程實例-MSC/NASTRAN軟體應用,北門出版社。

[12] 賴育良,林啟豪,謝忠祐,1998,ANSYS電腦輔助工程分析,儒林出版社。

[13] ANSYS Menu,“Newton-Raphson Procedure”, ANSYS Theory
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[14] L.E. Malvern, J Appl. Mech., Vol. 18, pp. 261-281, 1951.

[15] Norman E. Dowling,“Mechanical Behavior of Materials:
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[16] ANSYS Menu,“Rate-Independent Plasticity”, ANSYS Theory Reference, Reversion 5.5, pp.4-4-24, 1998.

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[18] Solomon, H. D.,“Fatigue of 60/40 Solder”, IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Man8facturing Technology, Vol. Chmt-9, No. 4, Dec. 1986, pp.423-431.

[19] J. H. Lau and S.-W.R.Lee,”Reliability of wafer lever chip scale package(WLCSP)with 96.5Sn3.5Ag lead-free solder joints on build-up microvia printed circuit board”, IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,Vol.23,No.1,January 2000,pp.19-27

[20] 馮克林,”淺談銲錫可靠度”,工業材料,124期,pp.93-99, 86年4月.

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