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研究生:洪郁修
研究生(外文):Yu-Hsiu Hung
論文名稱:兒童WWW人際溝通網路介面之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research of WWW Interface for Children
指導教授:陳建旭陳建旭引用關係饒培倫饒培倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Hsu ChenPei-Luen Rau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:工業設計學系碩博士班
學門:設計學門
學類:產品設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:200
中文關鍵詞:網際網路介面人際溝通使用性參與式設計兒童
外文關鍵詞:childrenusabilityWebcommunicationinterfaceparticipatory design
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:16
隨著兒童網路須求議題逐漸受到重視,本研究將以參與式設計方法之設計發展程序為理論架構,考量如何透過網際網路介面互動與雙向式的特性來滿足現今兒童之人際溝通與交流需求。本研究徵募了7位10-11歲國小學童加入為期4個月的參與式設計。基於兒童認知相關研究與兒童電腦/網路能力問卷,研究人員可發展與了解兒童電腦心智模型,在成功地和參與兒童建立互信關係之後,所有成員組成參與式設計小組,進行網路議題研討與提出可能性介面。在本研究中,小組成員的主要任務為尋找介面功能與介面設計和使用者對應的可能性,最後發展一人際溝通網路介面的雛形。

為了解兒童對人際溝通網站之需求,並規範網站所應包含之功能。本研究進行了網際網路溝通媒體功能與優缺點分析、兒童情境化結構式訪談與入口網站人際溝通功能服務介面使用狀況調查三部份,研究結果發現:(1)兒童希望人際溝通網站可讓他們儲存個人收藏的資訊(圖片、文章、影片與遊戲),最好還要提供電子郵件、聊天室、討論區功能。(2)事實上目前入口網站電子郵件提供的附加文件傳輸功能可滿足兒童資訊收藏與交流需求;聊天室可提供如ICQ般即時溝通的功能;討論區可改善BBS純文字資訊呈現之缺點;加上上述介面沒有龐大的資訊封包問題。因此,適合兒童的人際溝通網路介面可以針對目前現行入口網站的服務介面改善,符合兒童使用即可。

此外為探討兒童網路介面設計準則、圖像風格和介面配置喜好。本研究進行了兒童網站介面設計啟發式評估實驗、兒童網站人際溝通圖像設計風格探討實驗、兒童網站人際溝通圖像風格測試實驗、兒童人際溝通網路介面配置設計實驗與兒童人際溝通網路介面配置驗證實驗,共5個實驗,研究結果發現:(1)專家評估互動方式介面設計為主的兒童網站,使用性問題最多;傳統超文字連結介面之兒童網站,使用性問題最少。(2)兒童喜歡與認知性最佳的網路圖像是可愛風格圖像。(3)兒童喜歡網頁將性質相同或相似的介面編排在一起。(4)本研究開發的介面經由操作性、記憶性、錯誤率與滿意度效標測試後,各方面的績效均比擁有兒童網域的雅虎奇摩人際溝通網頁介面還要好。

本研究最後除了提出兒童網頁設計之相關建議之外,亦與目前使用參與式設計方法論之研究進行比較,並說明本研究在兒童網路研究議題之貢獻。
Designing for younger users on the Web is generating a lot of interests. This research applies Participatory Design (PD) methods on developing a community Web site for children. Seven elementary school students around 10 years old are representative users during the four-month participatory design.

Based on related literature and results of a computer and Internet background survey, this research developed a children’s mental model for using computers. A series of discussion and design processes were conducted to develop prototypes of a children’s community Web site. The main tasks of all the participants were to derive the functions of the Web site, to develop the user interface, and to build up a final prototype.

To elicit younger users’ needs, the PD team analyzed functions of popular communication Web sites, and then conducted structured interviews with children participants. The results indicated that: (1) Children preferred storing personal information on the Web site for sharing. They would also like to keep in touch with their friends thru e-mail, chatting room, and discussion group on the Web. (2) E-mail services provided by most Web portals could satisfy children users on file sharing by allowing file transmissions
So do Chatting room and Discussion group. Therefore, this research suggested that improving current community functions of Web portals would meet children users’ needs.

The PD team also developed interface design guidelines for children Web sites, including icon design and screen layouts. 5 experiments, such as children’s community websites heuristic evaluation, icon design experiment, icon design testing, interface layout experiment, and interface layout testing, were conducted. The results showed that: (1) Interactive effects such as flash animation on Web pages were associated with more usability problems than plain HTML Web pages. (2) Children preferred icons with animation, and performed good in recognition tests. (3) Children preferred Web pages with similar functions or labels grouped together. (4) The prototype proposed by this research was associated with better performance of children users than Web portals in Taiwan.

Based on the results of the participatory design, this research suggests general design guidelines for younger Web users.
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………1
1.1研究背景與動機…………………………………………1
1.2研究目的……………………………………… ……… 2
1.3研究假設…………………………………………………2
1.4研究範圍與限制…………………………………………3
1.5研究架構與流程…………………………………………3
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………6
2.1兒童心智模型………………………………………… 6
2.1.1 心智成熟度在實際操作階段前的兒童…………… 6
2.1.2 心智成熟度達到實際操作階段的兒童…………… 7
2.1.3 兒童參與使用性測試的電腦背景………………… 8
2.2電腦中介溝通……………………………………………9
2.2.1 電腦中介溝通的定義……………………………… 9
2.2.2 電腦中介溝通的使用者……………………………10
2.2.3 電腦中介溝通的社交心理…………………………11
2.2.4 使用電腦中介溝通提昇面對面的討論……………13
2.3超媒體的隱喻………………………………………… 14
2.3.1 超媒體的隱喻………………………………………14
2.3.2 超媒體的隱喻類型…………………………………15
2.3.3 超媒體的特徵………………………………………15
2.3.4 超媒體隱喻的分析範例……………………………15
2.3.5 超媒體介面設計的建議……………………………17
2.4參與式設計方法論…………………………………… 17
2.4.1 未來工作坊Future Workshop的合作方式……… 18
2.4.2 參與式設計方法成功與否的兩項特徵要點………18
2.4.3 參與式設計方法的設計週期………………………18
2.5網際網路可用性研究與測試方法…………………… 19
2.5.1 可用性定義……………………………………… 19
2.5.2 質性分析方法………………………………………19
2.5.3 心智模型和使用者口語描述………………………20
2.5.4 啟發式評估方法……………………………………20
2.5.5 回溯式測試法 …………………………………… 22
2.5.6 圖像的研究與測試方法……………………………22
第三章 研究方法- 兒童參與式設計……………………25
3.1參與式設計概念模型………………………………… 25
3.1.1 發展使用者電腦心智模型…………………………25
3.1.2 參與式設計小組設立………………………………26
3.1.3 尋找介面與使用者對應的可能性…………………26
3.1.4 發展網路介面雛形…………………………………26
3.2使用者訪談方法……………………………………… 28
3.2.1 問卷法………………………………………………28
3.2.2 訪談法………………………………………………28
3.2.3 情境化的探索………………………………………30
3.2.4 口語式問題的詢問……………………………… 31
3.3介面評估方法………………………………………… 32
3.3.1 啟發式評估方法……………………………………32
3.4前測實驗……………………………………………… 34
3.4.1兒童電腦/網路能力問卷調查………………………34
3.4.2 參與式設計小組的設立……………………………35
第四章 介面功能與使用者對應可能性實驗 ……………38
4.1網際網路溝通媒體功能與優缺點分析……………… 38
4.1.1 網際呼叫器…………………………………………38
4.1.2 網路會議室…………………………………………38
4.1.3 電子郵件……………………………………………39
4.1.4 電子佈告欄…………………………………………39
4.2實驗一:兒童情境化結構式訪談…………………… 41
4.2.1 參與人員……………………………………………41
4.2.2 訪談地點……………………………………………41
4.2.3 訪談目的……………………………………………41
4.2.4 情境設定……………………………………………42
4.2.5 訪談方式與步驟……………………………………42
4.2.6 訪談結果……………………………………………42
4.3實驗二:入口網站人際溝通功能服務介面使用狀況調查44
4.3.1 調查對象與限制……………………………………45
4.3.2 調查功能選項項目…………………………………45
4.3.3 調查方法……………………………………………45
4.3.4 調查結果統計………………………………………45
第五章 介面設計與使用者對應可能性實驗 ……………49
5.1實驗三:兒童網站介面設計啟發式評估…………… 49
5.1.1參與者(評估人員)………………………………… 49
5.1.2 評估準則……………………………………………50
5.1.3 評估網站……………………………………………50
5.1.4 評估方法與流程……………………………………53
5.1.5 評估結果……………………………………………54
5.2實驗四:兒童網站圖像設計………………………… 56
5.2.1 參與者………………………………………………56
5.2.2 設計流程……………………………………………56
5.2.3 圖像設計原則產生與成果…………………………57
5.3實驗五:兒童網站圖像設計評估…………………… 59
5.3.1 受測者………………………………………………59
5.3.2 實驗地點……………………………………………59
5.3.3 實驗方法與步驟……………………………………59
5.3.4 實驗結果……………………………………………60
5.4實驗六:兒童網頁介面配置設計…………………… 61
5.4.1 實驗目………………………………………………61
5.4.2 受測者………………………………………………61
5.4.3 實驗地點……………………………………………61
5.4.4 實驗器材……………………………………………61
5.4.5 實驗流程……………………………………………62
5.4.6 實驗結果……………………………………………63
5.5實驗七:兒童網頁介面配置驗證實驗……………… 67
5.5.1 實驗目的……………………………………………67
5.5.2 實驗自變數…………………………………………67
5.5.3 實驗依變數…………………………………………67
5.5.4 實驗任務……………………………………………68
5.5.5 受測者………………………………………………69
5.5.6 實驗環境與器材……………………………………69
5.5.7 實驗流程……………………………………………69
5.5.8 實驗結果……………………………………………71
第六章 實驗結果分析與討論 ……………………………76
6.1網路介面功能規範…………………………………… 76
6.1.1 實驗一:兒童情境化結構式訪談討論……………76
6.1.2 實驗二:人際溝通功能服務介面使用狀況討論…77
6.2網路介面設計規範…………………………………… 77
6.2.1 實驗三:兒童網站介面設計啟發式準則討論……78
6.2.2 實驗四、五:兒童圖像風格喜好討論……………78
6.2.3 實驗六:兒童網頁介面配置喜好分析與討論……80
6.2.4 實驗七:兒童網站介面配置驗證實驗討論………84
6.3綜合討論……………………………………………… 94
6.3.1 現有兒童電腦網路議題研究………………………94
6.3.2 參與式設計方法之研究假設驗證…………………95
第七章 結論與建議 ………………………………………98
7.1參與式設計方法的成效……………………………… 98
7.2參與式設計方法的感想……………………………… 99
7.2.1 參與兒童的挑選……………………………………99
7.2.2 小組互動過程…………………………………… 100
7.2.3 本研究成功的要素……………………………… 102
7.3兒童網路介面設計建議………………………………104
7.3.1 介面應考量隱喻的一致性……………………… 104
7.3.2 介面名稱須考量使用者的認知………………… 104
7.3.3 介面名稱可區隔性質相同的介面……………… 104
7.4後續研究的可能性……………………………………105
7.4.1 就未來兒童休閒的角度而言…………………… 105
7.4.2 就未來兒童教育的趨勢而言…………………… 105
7.4.3 就兒童和家長老師互動的角度而言…………… 105

參考文獻 …………………………………………………106
附錄 ………………………………………………………113
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