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研究生:方斌
研究生(外文):Fang Pin
論文名稱:國內搭機民眾對客艙安全認知之調查研究
論文名稱(外文):The Research of Domestic Passengers’ Perception to Cabin Safety
指導教授:李再長李再長引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzai-Zang Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:工業管理科學系碩博士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:安全提示緊急逃生客艙安全
外文關鍵詞:safety briefingsemergency evacuationcabin safety
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摘 要

客艙安全是在飛機發生意外時降低傷亡率,而在飛機在進行操作時提供乘客及機組員一個安全的客艙環境。本研究是經由調查國內搭機乘客對客艙安全、飛航安全風險及飛航防衛等認知與飛行前安全提示參與情況後,以做為建構飛航安全資訊教育之宣導、執行及訓練方法的依據,本研究發現如下。
一、受訪者主觀認知交通工具中,以火車為最安全,其次為民航客機、輪船、大客車、小客車。而失事生還率,則以民航機為最低。受訪者對各項飛機緊急情況發生的生還率均有低估之情況,緊急情況實際生還率愈低之狀況,低估之情況愈大。
二、近一半受訪者認為自己有注意逃生門位置、會使用氧氣面罩及逃生背心,但表示不會開啟逃生門。近八成的受訪者認為飛機迫降瞬間身體應該彎腰抱腿,並且逃生時應聽從機組員指示。有近半數的受訪者認為外力撞擊造成的傷亡情況最為嚴重。而受訪者認為火及煙霧、不會使用求生裝備及機組員危機處理能力薄弱是三個最主要導致逃生困難的因素。
三、71%的受訪者表示會聆聽安全提示,會閱讀安全提示卡的比例為34%。受訪者認為安全提示以空服員示範最具吸引力,而宣傳飛航安全最有效的傳播媒介是電視。
四、受訪者認為加強登機前安檢是最有效的預防劫機措施,並贊成配置空安人員,以「確保安全」為主要原因。受訪者認為空安人員應該來自於警界。當發生劫機時,有57.6%的受訪者表示會採取行動制服歹徒。
五、硬體因素的認知情況與聆聽安全提示頻率與閱讀安全提示卡頻率有顯著的正相關。
Abstract

Cabin safety reduces fatalities and injuries resulting from an accident and provides for a safe environment for passengers and crew members in and around an aircraft. This research through surveying domestic passengers’ perception of cabin safety, aviation safety risks, flight security and the conditions of safety briefing could be for future reference for establishing aviation safety information education on promotion, execution, and training. The findings of the analysis are as follows:
1. The respondents perceived that the safest rates for different ways of transportations were in the following order: trains, aircrafts, ships, buses, and cars. They perceived that aircrafts had the lowest accident survival rates. The respondents underestimate all kinds of aviation accidents survival rates. The lower the actual aviation accidents survival rate, the lower it was estimated.
2. About half the respondents considered that they had paid attention to emergency exit position and can operate oxygen masks and life vests, but couldn’t open emergency exit. About eighty percent of the respondents considered that the correct posture should be bending down and holding arms behind legs in a crash landing and listen to crewmember’s commands at evacuation. About half the respondents considered that external force strike was the most serious. The main three factors making evacuation difficult were: fire and smog, incapable of operating survival equipments, and crewmember’s poor crisis handling capacity.
3. 71 percent of the respondents expressed that they would listen to safety briefings and 34 percent of them would read safety briefing cards. The respondents expressed that the attendant-led briefing was the most attractive. The most effective way for propagandizing aviation safety was through television broadcasting.
4. The respondents expressed that the most effective precautionary measure of hijacking was strengthening the security check and agreed of disposing security guards for safety. The respondents considered that security guards should come from police squad. If hijacking occurred, 57.6 percent of the respondents expressed that they would take action to subdue the hijackers.
5. The correlation between hardware perception of cabin safety and frequency of listening to safety briefings, and reading safety briefing cards were both statistically significant
目 錄
目錄……………………………………….……………….………………….Ⅰ
表目錄…………………………………………………….……………..……Ⅱ
圖目錄………….……………………………………….…………………….Ⅲ
第一章 緒論….....……….…………………………………………………1
1.1 問題背景………….…………………………………………………....1
1.2. 研究動機………….…………………………………………………...2
1.3 研究目的與預期貢獻………….……………………………………..…3
1.3.1 研究目的………….…………………………………………...…...3
1.3.2 預期貢獻………….………………………………………………....3
1.4 研究流程………….…………………………………………………..…4
第二章 文獻探討……….…….………………………………………..…..6
2.1 客艙設計及其相關規定………….………………………………..……6
2.2 緊急逃生相關研究………….…………………………………….……10
2.3 影響生還率之因素………….……………………………………….…17
第三章 研究方法………….…………………………………………....…21
3.1 研究架構………….…………………………………………….…....21
3.2 研究變數之定義與衡量………….…………….…………….……...22
3.3 研究假設………….…………………………………………….………23
3.4 抽樣設計………….………………………………………….……....24
3.5 資料分析方法………….…………………………………….……....25
第四章 研究結果………….……………………………………..…………27
4.1研究樣本之基本資料.……………………………………..……......27
4.2一般飛航安全認知調查……………………………………..………...30
4.3客艙安全認知調查.……………………………………..….….…....33
4.4安全行為參與調查….……………………………………….….…....47
4.5飛航防衛調查….………………………………….….…............55
4.6相關分析….…………………....…….….…....................60
第五章 結論與建議………….…….……………………………….………65
5.1結論.………………..………..................................65
5.2建議……………………………………..……………………………...77

參考文獻……………………………………………………….……..…….79
附錄一:客艙全相關法規條文………….…………………….…..………83
附錄二:電模擬逃生模式……………….…………………….…..………85
附錄三:生模式之比較………………….…………………….…..………89
附錄四職業類別………………………….…………………….…..………90
附錄:問卷……………………………….…………………….…..………91

表 目 錄
表1-1 國籍航空器歷年失事及重大意外紀錄…….…………….………1
表2-1-1 緊急逃生門之種類………………………….………….…………7
表2-1-2 飛機所需逃生門之種類與數量……………….……….…………8
表2-2-1 群集密度與緊急逃生之相互關係表……………....…….…….16
表2-3-1 飛機緊急情況之實際生還率……………..………………….….18
表2-3-2 促進生還率可能因素與逃生因素/影嚮對象之相互關係..…….20
表4-1-1 個人基本背景變項統計表………………………………..………29
表4-2-1 五項運輸交通工具的安全程度………………………..…………30
表4-2-2 五項運輸交通工具安全程度排序之眾數分析表…....……..…31
表4-2-3 五項運輸交通工具發生意外的生還可能性….……..….…..…31
表4-2-4 五項運輸交通工具生還可能性排序之眾數分析表…..……..…32
表4-2-5 飛航緊急情況下可能的生還率…..…………………....…..…33
表4-3-1 對於座位與機上逃生門相對位置注意情況之卡方檢定表………34
表4-3-2 機上逃生門注意情況與背景變項之交叉分析表………......…35
表4-3-3 對於是否會開啟機上逃生門認知情況卡方檢定表….….....…36
表4-3-4 開啟機上逃生門認知情況與背景變項之交叉分析表…......…37
表4-3-5 對於是否會使用氧氣面罩認知情況卡方檢定表……….…….…38
表4-3-6 使用氧氣面罩認知情況與背景變項之交叉分析表………....…39
表4-3-7 對於是否使用水上救生背心認知情況卡方檢定表….……...…40
表4-3-8 使用水上救生背心認知情況與背景變項之交叉分析……....…40
表4-3-9 身體應該保持的姿勢認知情況之卡方檢定表..............…43
表4-3-10 對於選擇的逃生方式認知情況之卡方檢定表…............…43
表4-3-11 選擇的逃生方式認知情況與背景變項之交叉分析表……...….43
表4-3-12 對於何種情況造成傷亡最為嚴重認知情況之卡方檢定表....…44
表4-3-13 導致逃生困難的因素次數分配表..........................45
表4-3-14 誰最能夠協助乘客安全脫離飛機認知情況之卡方檢定表......46
表4-4-1 聆聽安全提示行為之卡方檢定表..........................48
表4-4-2 聆聽情況與背景變項之交叉分析表........................48
表4-4-3 閱讀安全提示卡行為之卡方檢定表........................50
表4-4-4 閱讀情況與背景變項之交叉分析表........................51
表4-4-5 各項安全提示之吸引程度................................52
表4-4-6 空服員角色定位認知....................................53
表4-4-7 各類傳播媒介的有效程度................................54
表4-5-1 預防劫機措施之次數分配表..............................55
表4-5-2 預防劫機措施之眾數分析表..............................56
表4-5-3 機上配置空安人員之意願及原因..........................58
表4-6-1 客艙安全認知與聆聽安全提示頻率之相關分析表............60
表4-6-2 逃生門注意情況與聆聽安全提示頻率之交叉分析表..........61
表4-6-3 是否會開啟機上逃生門與聆聽安全提示頻率之交叉分析表....61
表4-6-4 是否會使用氧氣面罩與聆聽安全提示頻率之交叉分析表......62
表4-6-5 是否會使用水上救生背心與聆聽安全提示頻率之交叉分析表..62
表4-6-6 客艙安全認知與閱讀安全提示卡頻率之相關分析表..........63
表4-6-7 逃生門注意情況與閱讀安全提示卡頻率之交叉分析表........63
表4-6-8 是否會開啟機上逃生門與閱讀安全提示卡頻率之交叉分析....64
表4-6-9 是否會使用氧氣面罩與閱讀安全提示卡頻率之交叉分析表....64
表4-6-10 是否會使用水上救生背心與閱讀安全提示卡頻率之交叉分析表64
表5-1-1 搭機目的、搭機次數及月收入之交叉分析表................68
表5-1-2 實際觀察搭機乘客聆聽飛行前安全提示統計表..............71
表5-1-3 研究假設驗證表........................................75
圖 目 錄
圖1-4-1 研究流程………………………………..….………………...…5
圖2-2-1 Snow & Carroll模式...………………….….….…………....10
圖2-2-2 SELL模式…………………………………………….…………...11
圖3-1-1 研究架構圖…………………………………….……………….…21
圖3-5-1 資料分析方法圖……...………….…………….…………….…26
圖4-3-1 對於座位與機上逃生門之相對位置注意情況..…...……...…34
圖4-3-2 對於是否會開啟機上逃生門之認知情況.……………..…...…36
圖4-3-3 對於是否會使用氧氣面罩之認知情況.……………...……..…38
圖4-3-4 對於是否會使用水上救生背心之認知情況.…………….…..…39
圖4-3-5 飛機迫降瞬間身體應該保持的姿勢.…………………….…..…41
圖4-3-6 選擇的逃生方式之認知情況.…………………….......…..…42
圖4-3-7 何種情況造成的傷亡最為嚴重.…………………......…...…44
圖4-3-8 誰最能夠協助乘客安全脫離飛機.………………......…….…46
圖4-4-1 聆聽安全提示頻率.………………………………......…….…47
圖4-4-2 不注意安全提示時從事之活動.……………………..……….…49
圖4-4-3 閱讀安全提示卡情況.……………………..………………….…50
圖4-4-4 未閱讀安全提示卡之原因.…………………………….......…52
圖4-4-5 加填職業欄之意願.…………………………………….......…54
圖4-5-1 搭機民眾可接受的漲幅.……………………………….......…56
圖4-5-2 餐刀(具)不使用金屬的接受…………………………........…57
圖4-5-3 遭遇劫機時應變態度.………………………………….......…57
圖4-5-4 是否選擇配有空安人員但票價貴3%之航空公司…………....…59
圖4-5-5 空安人員之招募方式.………………………………….......…59
參考文獻
一、中文部分
中華民國民航局,http://caa_motc.gov.tw
行政院飛安委員會,http://www.asc.gov.tw/
何立己(民87),黑盒子的秘密-航空安全人為因素剖析,AIRWAY世界民航雜誌
何立己(民89),「大眾搭機安全與客艙安全系列研究(I):航空界人員對客艙安全認知之調查研究初探」,中華民國行政院飛安委員會。

二、英文部分
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Edwards,E.(1972), “Man And Machine: Systems for Safety In: Proceedings of the BALPA,” Technical Symposium, London.
Federal Aviation Administration,http://www.faa.gov/
Fennell, P.J.(1992), “Flight Attendant Training and Performance During Emergency Situation, Special Investigation,” Report NTSB/SIR-92/02.
Flight Safety Foundation,http://rhytech.com/~fsf
Harris, J.R., and H.C. Muir(1998), “Leadership on the flight deck: The influence of crew social relations and crew member experience on leadership style effectiveness in civil aviation flight crews,” Cabin Crew Safety, 27 (1) pp.1-7.
International Aviation Transportation Association,http://www.iata.org./
Lautman L. G., and P.Gallimore(1993). “Control of the crew caused accident.” Seattle, WA, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company.
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Koenig, R.L.(1996 MAR-APR), “Seat Configuration, Passenger Variables Affect Aircraft Type III Exit Egress Speed,” Cabin Crew Safety, 31(2) pp.1-7.
Koenig, R.L.(1996 SEP-OCT), “Motivation and Egress Route affect Simulated Emergency Aircraft Evacuation,” Cabin Crew Safety, 31(5) pp.1-6.
Koenig, R.L.(1997 JAN-FEB), “Exit-locating Devices, Aircraft Structural Strengthening and Improved Crew Drills Called “Most Practicable“ Accident-survivability Factors,” Cabin Crew Safety, 32 (1) pp.1-6.
Martinez, R., and, J. M. Hedo(2000), “Analysis of evacuation strategies for design and certification of transport airplanes,” Journal of Aircraft, 37(3) pp. 440-447.

Matthews, S.k.(1998), “Cabin Crrews Must Capture Passenger’s Attention in Predeparture Safety Briefings,” Cabin Crew Safety, 35(4) pp.1-12.
Muir,H.C., C. Marrison and A.Evans(1989), “Aircraft evacuations: the effect of passenger motivation and cabin configuration adjacent to the exit,” CAA paper 89019.
Muir,H.C., and A. M.Cobbett(1996), “Influence of Cabin Crew During Emergency Evacuations at Floor Level Exits,” CAA Paper 95006.
Muir,H.C., D.M. Bottomley and C. Marrison(1996), “Effects of Motivation and Cabin Configuration on Emergency Aircraft Evacuation Behavior and Rates of Egress,” The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 28(5) pp. 57-77.
Muir, H.C., and A. M.Cobbett(1997), “Recent Research into the Factors Influencing the Evacuation of passengers,”Proceedings of the Conference, London, United Kingdom.
Muir, H.C., and A. M.Cobbett(2000), “Passenger Protection and Behavior,” The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 16(4) pp.14-25.
National Transportation Safety Board,http://www.ntsb.gov./
National Transportation Safety Board (1981), “Special Study: cabin safety in large transport aircraft,” NTSB-AAS-81-02.
National Transportation Safety Board(1992),” Flight Attendant Training and Performance During Emergency Situation,” Special Investigation, Report NTSB/SIR-92/02.

National Transportation Safety Board(2000),” Safety Study, Emergency Evacuation of Commercial Airplanes,” Safety Study, NTSB/SS-00/01.
Neal, S.L.(1998), “The Human Factor in Simulated Emergency Evacuation Of Aircraft Cabins: Psychological and Physical Aspects-Proceedings” 1998 International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference, pp.16-20.
Owen, M., E.R. Galea, P.J. Lawrence and L. Filippidis(1998, JUN-JUL), “The Numerical Simulation of Aircraft Evacuation and Its Application to Aircraft Design and Certification,” Aeronautical Journal, 102(1016), pp.301-312.
Owen, M., E.R. Galea, P.J. Lawrence and L. Filippidis(1998, AUG-SEP), “AASK- Aircraft Accident Statistics and Knowledge: A Database of Human Experience in Evacuation, Derived from Aviation Accident Reports,” Aeronautical Journal, 102(1017), pp.353-363.
Sacco, G.(1999), “Dimensions of Aircraft Occupants’ Motivation and Behavior-Proceedings,” 1998 International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference,pp.21-25.
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Taylor, A. F.(1989), “Aircraft Accidents,” Cranfield Institute of Technology, U.K.
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