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研究生:利俊鴻
研究生(外文):Chun-Hung Lee
論文名稱:電子用低介電材料之合成與性質之研究
論文名稱(外文):Synthesis and properties of low dielectric materials for microelectronic application
指導教授:王春山
指導教授(外文):Chun-Shan Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:化學工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:146
中文關鍵詞:雙馬來醯亞胺樹脂氰酸脂
外文關鍵詞:BT resinBMIcyanate ester
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中文摘要

本研究主題是採用輕油裂解的廉價副產物Dicyclopentadiene(DCPD)與Dipentene(DP)為原料,藉由原料的疏水性,低極性及剛硬性脂環狀結構,合成新穎含DCPD或DP結構之氰酸脂單體及雙馬來醯亞胺單體,以FT-IR、EA、Mass、NMR分析鑑定產物結構,確認無誤。
將所合成DCPD型和DP型氰酸脂單體,分別配合商業化常用單體(雙酚A二氰酸脂,BADCY)製成種類不同、比例不同之氰酸脂共聚酯,詳細探討DCPD和DP的結構在耐熱性,吸濕率,介電係數和介電損失,熱安定性及尺寸安定性的影響。由結果發現,DCPD及DP型氰酸脂硬化物的吸濕率(0.88%和0.95%)約為BADCY硬化物(1.77%)的一半,而介電係數約2.5∼2.6,介電損失約0.003∼0.029皆比商業化樹脂低很多,顯示DCPD和DP結構的導入,可以降低硬化樹脂的吸濕率、介電係數及介電損失,並且會有高的玻璃轉移溫度(250℃以上),良好的熱安定性(熱裂解溫度皆在420℃以上)及尺寸安定性。
雙馬來醯亞胺-三氮雜苯樹脂(bismaleimide-triazine resin),簡稱BT樹脂,是本論文的主要研究方向。此種樹脂是一種已商業化之積層樹脂,具耐高溫,抗溶劑性,低吸水性,低介電常數等特性,可以廣泛的應用於航太工業上的高溫接著劑,保護塗裝,複合基材,亦可應用於電子工業上的多層印刷電路板及封裝材料上。

將所合成的含DCPD和DP結構的雙馬來醯亞胺單體,配合DCPD和DP型氰酸脂單體,製成比例不同之DCPD和DP系列BT樹脂來和商業化BT樹脂作比較。由結果顯示,DCPD型和DP型BT樹脂的吸濕率分別為0.88∼1.33%和0.95∼1.34%,比商用BT樹脂(吸濕率1.77∼5.46%)低很多;介電係數分別為2.53∼2.98和2.56∼2.99;介電損失則分別為0.003∼0.033和0.005∼0.035,皆比商用BT樹脂低很多。且DCPD和DP型BT樹脂皆有高玻璃轉移溫度(Tg約258∼345℃),良好的熱安定性(熱裂解溫度在429℃以上)及尺寸安定性。綜合以上諸優異特性,可確定DCPD型和DP型BT樹脂皆為低吸濕率、低介電係數及低介電損失的高性能樹脂。
Abstract

In this thesis , new aromatic cyanate esters and bismaleimides were synthesized from dicyclopentadiene(DCPD) and dipentene(DP) , the inexpensive byproducts from naphtha cracker . The monomers were characterized by infrared (IR) , proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) , elemental analyses (EA) and mass spectra (MS) .
Both new cyanate ester monomers containing DCPD and DP were combined with commercial available monomer (bisphenol A dicyanate ester , BADCY) in various ratio to form cocyanate esters polymer .The influences of DCPD and DP structures on moisture absorption , dielectric constant , dielectric loss , thermal stability and dimensional stability were explored. The cured cyanate esters containing DCPD(or DP) were superior to commercial resins in moisture absorption and electric properties . The moisture absorption was about 0.88%(or 0.95%);one half that of cured BADCY, and dielectric constants of cured DCPD(or DP) cyanate ester were ranged from 2.5~2.6 , dissipation factor were ranged from 0.003~0.029 , which were much lower than that of cured BADCY . Obviously , we can lower the moisture absorption , dielectric constant and dielectric loss by the use of DCPD and DP , and these cured resins all have high glass transition temperature(above 250℃) , excellent thermal stability(Td5% all above 420℃) and dimensional stability .

Synthesis of the bismaleimide triazine (BT) type resins which are high performance laminating resins are my major research object . The bismaleimide triazine resins have special features , such as better resistance to moisture absorption , excellent chemical resistance , good dimensional stability , low dielectric constant , and low dielectric loss , which make this type of resin important in the aerospace and electronic industries . Aerospace applications include high temperature adhesives, protective coatings and matrix resin for structural composite. Electronic applications include multilayer printed circuit boards , semiconductor encapsulants and interposer for IC.
The combination of bismaleimide containing DCPD (or DP) with DCPD(or DP) cyanate ester have produced a series of DCPD(or DP) BT resins which are compared with the commercially available BT resins . Observing from the results , the moisture absorption of DCPD(or DP) BT resins is 0.88~1.33%(or 0.95~1.34%) much lower than the regular BT resins(1.77~5.46%) ; the dielectric constant is about 2.53~2.98 (or 2.56~2.99), and the dielectric loss is about 0.003~0.033 (or 0.005~0.035) , which were much lower than the regular BT resins . Both DCPD and DP BT resins have high glass transition temperature (Tg about 258~345℃) , good thermal stability (Td above 429℃) , and dimensional stability suitable for the high performance applications .
總目錄

內容…………………………………………………………………..頁數
中文摘要………………………………………………………………I
英文摘要………………………………………………………………III
誌謝……………………………………………………………………V
總目錄…………………………………………………………………VI
表目錄…………………………………………………………………IX
圖目錄………………………………………………………………...XIV


第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………..1

1-1 前言……………………………………………………………….1
1-2 印刷電路基板的分類…………………………………………….1
1-3 多層板材料要求………………………………………………….2
1-4 未來需求之印刷電路板………………………………………….3
1-5 高頻基板材料之需求…………………………………………….4
1-6 本研究之目的及主要內容……………………………………….5

第二章 原理與文獻回顧………………………………………………11

2-1 前言……………………………………………………………...11
2-2…………………………………………………………………….. 11
2-2-1 氰酸脂簡介與發展概況與應用……………………………..11
2-2-2 cyanate ester 的合成反應原理……………………………...12
2-3……………………………………………………………………...15
2-3-1 雙馬來醯亞胺(Bismaleimide,BMI)……………….……….15
2-3-2 雙馬來醯亞胺-三氮雜苯樹脂(BT resin)…………………..18
2-4 電氣性質………………………………………………………...19
2-4-1 介電常數與介電損失……………………………………….20
2-4-2 影響介電常數的原因……………………………………….21


第三章 實驗……………………………………………………………25

3-1 藥品與儀器……………………………………………………...25
3-1-1 實驗藥品說明……………………………………………….25
3-1-2 儀器設備說明……………………………………………….27
3-1-3 反應裝置說明……………………………………………….28
3-2 實驗步驟………………………………………………………...29
3-2-1 DCPD(Dicyclopentadiene)型Novolac之合成…………..29
3-2-2 DP(Dipentene)型Novolac之合成……………………….30
3-2-3 氰酸脂(cyanate ester)之合成…………………………….31
3-2-4 二硝基(dinitro)單體之合成………………………………32
3-2-5 二胺基(diamine)單體之合成…………………………….33
3-2-6 雙馬來醯胺酸(bismaleamic acid)單體之合成…………..34
3-2-7 雙馬來醯亞胺(bismaleimide)單體之合成…………….…35
3-2-8 試片硬化條件……………………………………………….36
3-3 性質測試與分析………………………………………………...37

第四章 氰酸脂共聚酯之合成與性質之探討…………………………39

4-1 單體之鑑定……………………………………………………..39
4-1-1 Novolac 之鑑定…………………………………………….39
4-1-2 氰酸脂單體(cyanate ester)之鑑定………………………43
4-2 氰酸脂共聚酯硬化反應………………………………………..45
4-2-1 氰酸脂單體及硬化反應介紹……………………………….45
4-2-2 微差掃描熱分析…………………………………………….45
4-3 動態機械分析…………………………………………………..49
4-4 吸濕性分析……………………………………………………..51
4-5 電氣性質分析…………………………………………………..53
4-5-1 介電係數…………………………………………………….53
4-5-2 損失因素分析……………………………………………….54
4-6 TMA 分析………………………………………………………56
4-7 熱安定分析……………………………………………………...58
4-8 SEM 分析……………………………………………………….59
4-9 結論……………………………………………………………...60
第五章 雙馬來醯亞胺-三氮雜苯樹脂之合成與性質研究…………...83

5-1 單體之鑑定……………………………………………………...83
5-1-1 二硝基(dinitro)單體(DCPDNI,DPNI)之鑑定………83
5-1-2 二胺基(diamine)單體(DCPDA,DPA)之鑑定……….84
5-1-3 雙馬來醯胺酸(bismaleamic acid)單體(DCPDBMA,DPBMA)之合成…………………………………………86
5-1-4 雙馬來醯亞胺(bismaleimide)單體(DCPDBMI,
DPBMI)之合成………………………………………….88
5-2 Bismaleimide-Triazine resins 硬化反應……………………….90
5-2-1 雙馬來醯亞胺單體及硬化反應介紹……………………….90
5-2-2 微差掃描熱分析…………………………………………….93
5-3 動態機械分析…………………………………………………..95
5-4 吸濕性分析……………………………………………………..98
5-5 電氣性質分析…………………………………………………100
5-5-1 介電係數…………………………………………………...100
5-5-2 損失因素分析……………………………………………...103
5-6 TMA 分析……………………………………………………..105
5-7 熱安定分析…………………………………………………….108
5-8 SEM 分析…………………………………………………….. 110
5-9 結論…………………………………………………………….111

第六章 總結…………………………………………………………..142

參考文獻…………….…………………………………………….144
自述………………………………………………………………..146

表目錄

Table.1-1 Trends in PCB technology…………………………………. 9
Table.2-1 常見的氰酸脂及其物性…………………………………...14
Table.4-1 various cyanate esters………………………………………45
Table.4-2 DSC analysis with a heating rate 10℃/min of various cyanate esters …………………………………..46
Table.4-3 DSC analysis with a heating rate 10℃/min of various mole ratio cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DCPDCY )……………………………………46
Table.4-4 DSC analysis with a heating rate 10℃/min of various mole ratio cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DPCY )………………………………………..47
Table.4-5 DMA analysis data for various mole ratio cocyanate esters( BADCY / DCPDCY )……………………………...51
Table.4-6 DMA analysis data for various mole ratio cocyanate esters( BADCY / DPCY )………………………………….51
Table.4-7 Moisture absorption data of various mole ratio Cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DCPDCY )……………………………..52
Table.4-8 Moisture absorption data of various mole ratio Cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DPCY )…………………………………52
Table.4-9 Dielectric constant ( Dk )at room temperature
for various mole ratio cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DCPDCY )……………………………………54
Table.4-10 Dielectric constant ( Dk ) at room temperature
for various mole ratio cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DPCY )……………………………………..54
Table.4-11 Dissipation factor ( Df ) at room temperature
for various mole ratio cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DCPDCY )…………………………………55
Table.4-12 Dissipation factor ( Df ) at room temperature
for various mole ratio cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DCPDCY )…………………………………56
Table.4-13 TMA analysis data for various mole ratio cocyanate esters( BADCY / DCPDCY )…………………………...57
Table.4-14 TMA analysis data for various mole ratio cocyanate esters( BADCY / DPCY )………………………………58
Table.4-15 TGA analysis data for various mole ratio
Cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DCPDCY)………………...59
Table.4-16 TGA analysis data for various mole ratio
Cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DPCY)…………………….59
Table.5-1 Various bismaleimides…………………………………….90
Table.5-2 Various BT resins…………………………………………91
Table.5-3 DSC analysis for various BMI monomers………………..93
Table.5-4 DSC analysis with a heating rate of 10℃/min
for various mole ratio BT resin (DDMBMI / BADCY)………………………………….94
Table.5-5 DSC analysis with a heating rate of 10℃/min
for various mole ratio BTDC resin (DDMBMI / DCPDCY)………………………………...94
Table.5-6 DSC analysis with a heating rate of 10℃/min
for various mole ratio BTDP resin (DDMBMI / DPCY)…………………………………….94


Table.5-7 DSC analysis with a heating rate of 10℃/min for various mole ratio DCPD BT resin (DCPDBMI / DCPDCY)………………………………..95
Table.5-8 DSC analysis with a heating rate of 10℃/min for various mole ratio DP BT resin (DPBMI / DPCY)……………………………………….95
Table.5-9 DMA analysis data for various mole ratio BT resin (DDMBMI / DCPDCY)………………………96
Table.5-10 DMA analysis data for various mole ratio BTDC resin (DDMBMI / DCPDCY)…………………….97
Table.5-11 DMA analysis data for various mole ratio BTDP resin (DDMBMI / DPCY)………………………...97
Table.5-12 DMA analysis data for various mole ratio DCPD BT resin (DCPDBMI / DCPDCY)……………...97
Table.5-13 DMA analysis data for various mole ratio DP BT resin (DPBMI / DPCY)…………………………98
Table.5-14 Moisture absorption data of various mole ratio BT resins (DDMBMI / BADCY)……………………….99
Table.5-15 Moisture absorption data of various mole ratio BTDC resins (DDMBMI / DCPDCY)…………………...99
Table.5-16 Moisture absorption data of various mole ratio BTDP resins (DDMBMI / DPCY)……………………….99
Table.5-17 Moisture absorption data of various mole ratio DCPD BT resins (DCPDBMI / DCPDCY)……………100
Table.5-18 Moisture absorption data of various mole ratio DP BT resins (DPBMI / DPCY)………………………100

Table.5-19 Dielectric constant ( Dk )at room temperature
for various mole ratio BT resin ( DDMBMI / BADCY )……………………………….101
Table.5-20 Dielectric constant ( Dk )at room temperature
for various mole ratio BTDC resin ( DDMBMI / DCPDCY )……………………………...101
Table.5-21 Dielectric constant ( Dk )at room temperature
for various mole ratio BTDP resin ( DDMBMI / DPCY )………………………………….102
Table.5-22 Dielectric constant ( Dk ) at room temperature for various mole ratio DCPDBT resin ( DCPDBMI / DCPDCY )……………………………..102
Table.5-23 Dielectric constant ( Dk ) at room temperature for various mole ratio DPBT resin ( DPBMI / DPCY )…………………………………….102
Table.5-24 Dissipation factor ( Df ) at room temperature
for various mole ratio BT resins ( DDMBMI / BADCY )……………………………….103
Table.5-25 Dissipation factor ( Df ) at room temperature
for various mole ratio BTDC resins ( DDMBMI / DCPDCY )……………………………...104
Table.5-26 Dissipation factor ( Df ) at room temperature
for various mole ratio BTDP resins ( DDMBMI / DPCY )………………………………….104
Table.5-27 Dissipation factor ( Df ) at room temperature for various mole ratio DCPDBT resins (DCPDBMI / DCPDCY)………………………………104
Table.5-28 Dissipation factor ( Df ) at room temperature for various mole ratio DPBT resins (DPBMI / DPCY)……………………………………...105
Table.5-29 TMA analysis data for various mole ratio BT resins( DDMBMI / BADCY )……………………..105
Table.5-30 TMA analysis data for various mole ratio BTDC resins( DDMBMI / DCPDCY )…………………106
Table.5-31 TMA analysis data for various mole ratio BTDP resins( DDMBMI / DPCY )……………………..106
Table.5-32 TMA analysis data for various mole ratio DCPDBT resins( DCPDBMI / DCPDCY )……………107
Table.5-33 TMA analysis data for various mole ratio DPBT resins( DPBMI / DPCY )………………………107
Table.5-34 TGA analysis data for various mole ratio
BT resins (DDMBMI / BADCY)……………………...108
Table.5-35 TGA analysis data for various mole ratio
BTDC resins (DDMBMI / DCPDCY)………………….109
Table.5-36 TGA analysis data for various mole ratio
BTDP resins (DDMBMI / DPCY)……………………...109
Table.5-37 TGA analysis data for various mole ratio
DCPDBT resins (DCPDBMI / DCPDCY)…………….109
Table.5-38 TGA analysis data for various mole ratio
DPBT resins (DPBMI / DPCY)………………………..110

圖目錄

Fig. 1-1 台灣電路板產業市場變化……………………………………7
Fig. 1-2 我國印刷電路板產業結構……………………………………7
Fig. 1-3 Supplier of Raw material in PCB industry……………………..8
Fig. 1-4 The technology trend for PCB………………………………….8
Fig. 1-5 最適化之印刷電路板規格之要求…………………………...10
Fig. 1-6 各種典型電子通訊產品所使用頻率範圍之簡示圖……….. 10
Fig. 2-1 Cyclotrimerization of BADCy……………………………… ...14
Fig. 2-2 Chemistry of bismaleimide(BMI)…………………………..17
Fig. 2-3 DCPD structure (a)、(b)、(c)………………………………….23
Fig. 2-4 DP structure (a)、(b)、(c)………………………………………24
Fig. 3-1合成反應裝置圖……………………………………………….28
Fig. 4-1 DCPD FT-IR spectra…………………………………….61
Fig. 4-2 DCPDNO FT-IR spectra…………………………………61
Fig. 4-3 DP FT-IR spectra………………………………………...62
Fig. 4-4 DPNO FT-IR spectra…………………………………….62
Fig. 4-5 DCPD NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c)DEPT135.…………..63
Fig. 4-6 DCPDNO NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c)DEPT135………..64
Fig. 4-7 DP NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135………………65
Fig. 4-8 DPNO NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135…………..66
Fig. 4-9 DCPDNO Mass spectra……………………………………...67
Fig.4-10 DPNO Mass spectra………………………………………....67
Fig.4-11 DCPDCY FT-IR spectra…………………………………….68
Fig.4-12 DPCY FT-IR spectra………………………………………..68
Fig.4-13 DCPDCY NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135………69
Fig.4-14 DPCY NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135………….70
Fig.4-15 DCPDCY Mass spectra……………………………………..71
Fig.4-16 DPCY Mass spectra…………………………………………71
Fig.4-17 DSC analysis with a heating rate of 10℃/min
for various cyanate esters: BADCY, DCPDCY, DPCY…...72
Fig.4-18 DSC analysis with a heating rate of 10℃/min
for various mole ratio cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DCPDCY )……………………………………73
Fig.4-19 DSC analysis with a heating rate of 10℃/min
for various mole ratio cocyanate esters ( BADCY / DPCY )………………………………………..73
Fig.4-20 FT-IR spectra of DCPDCY monomer………………………74
Fig.4-21 FT-IR spectra of DCPDCY monomer cured at 200℃ for 8 hours……………………………………….74
Fig.4-22 FT-IR spectra of DCPDCY monomer cured at 200℃ for 8 hours and 220℃ for 4 hours……………...74
Fig.4-23 DMA analysis for various mole ratio cocyanate esters (BADCY/DCPDCY)………………………………………75
Fig.4-24 DMA analysis for various mole ratio cocyanate esters (BADCY/DPCY)…………………………………………..75
Fig.4-25 Various mole ratio cocyanate esters(BADCY/DCPDCY) Tg distribution……………………………………………..76
Fig.4-26 Various mole ratio cocyanate esters(BADCY/DPCY) Tg distribution……………………………………………..76
Fig.4-27 Moisture absorption of various cured cyanate esters………..77
Fig.4-28 Moisture absorption of various mole ratio cocyanate esters...77
Fig.4-29 Various mole ratio cocyanate esters dielectric constant(Dk) at 1 M Hz…………………………………………………..78
Fig.4-30 Various mole ratio cocyanate esters dielectric constant(Dk) at 1 G Hz…………………………………………………..78

Fig.4-31 Various mole ratio cocyanate esters dissipation factor(Df) at 1 M Hz…………………………………………………..79
Fig.4-32 Various mole ratio cocyanate esters dissipation factor(Df) at 1 G Hz…………………………………………………..79
Fig.4-33 TMA analysis for Tg value of BADCY…………………….80
Fig.4-34 TMA analysis for CTE value of DCPDCY…………………80
Fig.4-35 TGA curves of various mole ratio cocyanate esters (BADCY / DCPDCY)……………………………………..81
Fig.4-36 TGA curves of various mole ratio cocyanate esters (BADCY / DPCY)…………………………………………81
Fig.4-37 SEM analysis of cured cocyanate esters (sample ID : BADC46)…………………………………….82
Fig.4-38 SEM analysis of cured cocyanate esters (sample ID : BADC46)…………………………………….82
Fig.5-1 DCPDNI FT-IR spectra……………………………………112
Fig.5-2 DPNI FT-IR spectra……………………………………….112
Fig.5-3 DCPDNI NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135……...113
Fig.5-4 DPNI NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135………….114
Fig.5-5 DCPDNI Mass spectra……………………………………..115
Fig.5-6 DPNI Mass spectra…………………………………………115
Fig.5-7 DCPDA FT-IR spectra……………………………………..116
Fig.5-8 DPA FT-IR spectra…………………………………………116
Fig.5-9 DCPDA NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135……….117
Fig.5-10 DPA NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135…………..118
Fig.5-11 DCPDA Mass spectra……………………………………...119
Fig.5-12 DPA Mass spectra………………………………………….119
Fig.5-13 DCPDBMA FT-IR spectra………………………………...120
Fig.5-14 DPBMA FT-IR spectra…………………………………….120
Fig.5-15 DCPDBMA NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135…..121
Fig.5-16 DPBMA NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135………122
Fig.5-17 DCPDBMA Mass spectra………………………………….123
Fig.5-18 DPBMA Mass spectra……………………………………..123
Fig.5-19 DCPDBMI FT-IR spectra………………………………….124
Fig.5-20 DPBMI FT-IR spectra……………………………………..124
Fig.5-21 DCPDBMI NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135……125
Fig.5-22 DPBMI NMR spectra (a) 1H (b) 13C (c) DEPT135……….126
Fig.5-23 DCPDBMI Mass spectra…………………………………..127
Fig.5-24 DPBMI Mass spectra………………………………………127
Fig.5-25 DSC analysis for various BMI monomers…………………128
Fig.5-26 DSC analysis for various mole ratio of BT resins…………128
Fig.5-27 DSC analysis for various mole ratio of BTDC resins……….129
Fig.5-28 DSC analysis for various mole ratio of BTDP resins……….129
Fig.5-29 DSC analysis for various mole ratio of DCPD BT resins….130
Fig.5-30 DSC analysis for various mole ratio of DP BT resins……..130
Fig.5-31 DMA analysis for various mole ratio BT resins…………...131
Fig.5-32 DMA analysis for various mole ratio BTDC resins………...131
Fig.5-33 DMA analysis for various mole ratio BTDP resins…………132
Fig.5-34 DMA analysis for various mole ratio DCPD BT resins…...132
Fig.5-35 DMA analysis for various mole ratio DP BT resins……….133
Fig.5-36 Tg distribution for various mole ratio DCPD BT resins…...133
Fig.5-37 Tg distribution for various mole ratio DP BT resins………134
Fig.5-38 Moisture absorption for various mole ratio of various BT resins………………………………………....134
Fig.5-39 Dielectric constant (DK) at 1 M Hz for various mole ratio
of various BT resins………………………………………135
Fig.5-40 Dielectric constant (DK) at 1 G Hz for various mole ratio
of various BT resins………………………………………135
Fig.5-41 Dissipation factor (Df) at 1 M Hz for various mole ratio
of various BT resins………………………………………136
Fig.5-42 Dissipation factor (Df) at 1 G Hz for various mole ratio
of various BT resins………………………………………136
Fig.5-43 TMA analysis for various mole ratio of DCPD BT resins…137
Fig.5-44 TGA analysis for various mole ratio of BT resins…………137
Fig.5-45 TGA analysis for various mole ratio of BTDC resins………138
Fig.5-46 TGA analysis for various mole ratio of BTDP resins……….138
Fig.5-47 TGA analysis for various mole ratio of DCPD BT resins…139
Fig.5-48 TGA analysis for various mole ratio of DP BT resins……..139
Fig.5-49 SEM analysis of DCPD BT resins(sample ID : DCBT82)...140
Fig.5-50 SEM analysis of DCPD BT resins(sample ID : DCBT82)...140
Fig.5-51 SEM analysis of DCPD BT resins(sample ID : DCBT46)...141
Fig.5-52 SEM analysis of DCPD BT resins(sample ID : DCBT46)...141
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