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研究生:林志翰
研究生(外文):Chih-Han Lin
論文名稱:含水工構造物之明渠網路水流計算之研究
論文名稱(外文):Computation of Flow in a Channel Network with Discharge Control Structures
指導教授:蔡長泰蔡長泰引用關係
指導教授(外文):C T Tsai
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:河海工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:173
中文關鍵詞:構造物渠道網路
外文關鍵詞:structurechannel network
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台灣地區之區域排水系統複雜,且排水渠道中常見水門等流量控制結構物,形成縱橫交錯之網路系統。此外,由於土地之大量開發,逕流量較以往增加,而許多排水路渠道二側因土地高度開發導致拓寬不易,故藉由流量控制結構物之興建,將洪水引導至其他可新建或拓寬之排水路中,成為必然之防洪保護手段。故為能確實掌握洪水期之排洪情況,並提供流量控制結構物最佳之設計條件,須建立一可模擬流量控制結構物功能之區域排名水網路模式。

區域明渠排水系統為由釵h交匯節點及其間之連絡水路交錯形成之渠道網路。其中每一渠道之流況,除局部流況複雜之區域外,可視為一維緩變速流,故適用以迪聖凡南(de Saint Venant)方程式描述之。鄰近結構物之區域,因流況較為複雜,無法以迪聖凡南方程式處理,須由適合之流量控制方程式解析。故研究過程中,為瞭解流量控制結構物之特性,亦針對台灣地區排水路中常見之下射式水門及堰等結構物,深入分析其流量控制方程式、運動方程式、流況分界條件等,並配合試驗分析進行不同形狀水門之脈縮係數,脈縮係數對流況分界條件之影響,及水門關閉產生之回傳波動水理試驗,俾能瞭解水路中鄰近結構物之流況,並與排水網路模式結合。

模式架構以有限差分法之線性完全隱式法(linear fully implicit scheme)離散迪聖凡南方程式後,採流量連續式及各水路匯流處水位相等之條件串聯水路接合處之流況,並由水門及堰流方程式控制鄰近堰及水門斷面之計算,再以分群方式及雙掃法求解各水路斷面之變量流排洪過程。所發展之明渠排水網路模式,經以感潮段潮洪交會、暴雨排洪、水路中結構物流況、分洪方案效果解析等相關排水網路案例進行演算後,顯示除能模擬排水系統中結構物所發揮流量控制之功能外,即使在系統中各水路起始流量未知之情況下,仍可由模式之演算調整各渠路任意指定之起始流量至穩態之流量分配,故為一兼具穩定性及實用性之明渠區域排水網路模式,且文中對水路中結構物之流量控制特性,有深入之研究,可提供相關學術研究單位應用及工程實務單位規劃設計之參考。
Regional drainage systems in Taiwan are composed by complex channel networks with discharge control structures. Although storm runoffs of drainage systems increase due to rapid land development in recent years, it is usually difficult to improve drainage capacities by adding new channels or widening the existing ones. Therefore, it is often more feasible to divert portion of the runoff to new drainage systems or widened channels through installations of discharge controlling structures. To facilitate optimum designs of complex drainage systems, a computational algorithm is needed for simulating unsteady flow in a drainage system consisting of discharge control structures.
A drainage system is a network consisting of multiple channels and junctions. Flow in each channel generally can be considered as one-dimensional gradually varied flow, and, therefore, may be analyzed using the de-Saint Venant equations. However, the flow in the vicinity of a discharge control structure is more complex and cannot be adequately analyzed using the de-Saint Venant equations alone. To be accurate, it must be analyzed incorporating appropriate discharge-controlling equations. As such, discharge coefficients and distinguishing conditions for gates and weirs, commonly used as discharge control structures in Taiwan, are important parameters in the analysis. In the present study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the factors affecting the characteristics of discharge control structures including distinguishing condition and concentration coefficient. The results are then incorporated in the computation algorithm.
In the present algorithm, the de-Saint Venant equations for each channel are discretized based on linear fully implicit finite difference scheme for unsteady flow simulation. Distribution of discharge among involving channels at a junction is based on continuity equation, subject to a same water level. Gate and weir formulas for free or submerged flows are used for local flow computations. Flow hydrographs for channel sections are computed based on grouping process and double sweep method. A numerical model was developed based on the present algorithm. It was demonstrated that the model is capable of providing reasonable results for the sample drainage networks tested in this study. The model can also be applied to analyze drainage systems involving hydraulic structures, tidal effect, and storm runoff. Even if an incorrect flow distribution is initially assigned to the system, it can be self-adjusted to a stable one through the simulating process. It is concluded that the present model is a useful tool for hydraulic design, drainage system planning, and other related applications.
中文摘要……………………………………………………………IV
Abstract……………………………………………………………V
目錄…………………………………………………………VI
圖目錄…………………………………………………………IX
表目錄…………………………………………………………XIII
照片目錄………………………………………………………XIV
符號說明………………………………………………………XV

第一章 緒論……………………………………………………1
1-1 研究動機與目的…………………………………………1
1-2 文獻回顧…………………………………………………2
1-2-1 渠道網路系統模式研究…………………………2
1-2-2 水門與堰流之研究………………………………7
1-3 研究方法……………………………………………………10
1-4 組織架構………………………………………………………10

第二章 明渠網路模式理論架構…………………………13
2-1 基本方程式………………………………………………13
2-1-1 水路方程式………………………………………13
2-2-2 水路節點方程式………………………………14
2-2 排水網路模式之架構……………………………………14
2-2-1 水路雙掃法………………………………………14
2-2-2 節點水位方程式…………………………….……16
2-2-3 節點水位求解及矩陣雙掃法…………………17

第三章 流量控制結構物之水理分析……………………24
3-1 下射式水門………………………………………………24
3-1-1 流量係數之理論分析……………………………24
3-1-2 潛沒出流之水門浸沒深度………………………28
3-1-3 會發生自由出流之最大水門開度………………29
3-2 寬頂堰………………………………………………………31
3-2-1 自由溢流堰………………………………………31
3-2-2 潛沒溢流堰………………………………………34
3-3 下射式水門與寬頂堰之流況分界方程式……………36
3-3-1 下射式水門……………………………………36
3-3-2 寬頂堰…………………………………………38
3-4 水門關閉之湧波傳播現象………………………………41

第四章 水門試驗………………………………………………47
4-1 水門流況分界試驗……………………………………47
4-2 水門脈縮係數試驗…………………………………………50
4-2-1 脈縮係數量測………………………………………50
4-2-2 脈縮係數對流況分界之影響…………………52
4-3 水門開關之水理現象試驗………………………………54
4-3-1 實驗設備……………………………………………54
4-3-2 試驗條件………………………………………………57
4-3-3 數值計算與試驗結果比較…………………………63

第五章 結構物渠段演算模式之建立………………………67
5-1 結構物流量公式之差分式………………………………67
5-2 含結構物渠流之數值演算法…………………………70
5-3 討論………………………………………………………72

第六章 模式之測試與驗證…………………………………………75
6-1 單一渠道計算與格距測試……………………………75
6-2 淡水河流域模型試驗驗證與格距測試………………81
6-3 數值模式演算比較驗證………………………………89

第七章 模式之應用與討論……………………………………93
7-1 沿海感潮區段潮洪交會流況探討…………………93
7-1-1 研究對象…………………………………………94
7-1-2 邊界條件………………………………………….94
7-1-3 成果與討論………………………………………96
7-2 樹型網路分洪堰減洪之模擬分析…………………102
7-3 迴圈型網路結構物流況分析………………………108
7-3-1 案例模擬………………………………………108
7-3-2 成果與討論……………………………………119
7-4 二仁溪水系三爺溪排水系統洪流模擬.………………121

第八章 結論與建議……………………………………………127
8-1 結論……………………………………………………127
8-2 建議……………………………………………………129

附錄 A 變量流排水模式水路計算架構…………………132
附錄 B 節點水位方程式之係數…………………………135
附錄 C 淡水河系賀伯颱風洪流模擬分析………………137
附錄 D 排水網路模式輸入資料格式………………………142
參考文獻………………………………………………………146
誌謝……………………………………………………………153
個人簡歷…………………………………………………….154
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