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研究生:吳立中
研究生(外文):Lee-Chung Wu
論文名稱:二維小波轉換應用於波場影像分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):Application of 2D Wavelet Transform to Wave Field Analysis
指導教授:高家俊高家俊引用關係莊士賢莊士賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Chuen KaoLaurence Zsu-Hsin Chuang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:河海工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:小波轉換遙測
外文關鍵詞:Wavelet TransformRemote Sensing
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  遙感探測不與觀測目標物直接接觸,是藉由拍攝影像或接收回波之方式隔空探知目標物性質的技術。由於觀測儀器無須直接放置於海上進行觀測,可避免儀器遭受到海洋環境外力之影響以及破壞,於惡劣海況時更突顯出其價值,為從事海洋科學研究的重要方法之一。
  遙測所得資料為觀測區域之影像,需要利用適當之影像處理方法分析被觀測目標物之特性。本文選用具有分析非定常訊號的小波轉換理論分析遙測波場影像,小波轉換之基本原理與傳統之影像處理方法-傅立葉轉換類似,但小波轉換分析方法可同時表現出被分析影像中空間域與波數域(空間頻率域)的資訊,且在分析波場影像時會隨著被分析訊號之波長(空間頻率)特性調整其分析的範圍。為將小波轉換理論應用於波場影像分析,本文推導出小波參數與波浪參數之間的關係,以及小波轉換中調變視窗之大小與波場影像間之關係。經由本文方法對多種數值模擬均勻以及非均勻波場分析驗證後,除了證實本文分析方法正確無誤外,亦得知二維小波轉換能完整描述空間中不同區域之波譜特性,於分析非均勻性波場以及點波源波場時,更能突顯出本法之優越性。
  本文並進一步對二維小波轉換於實務應用時,小波轉換中一些參數對分析結果所產生之影響作一探討。本文利用小波轉換分析影像中不同區域之影像譜,結果顯示於分析極近岸波場影像或影像邊緣區域時,波場影像之分析位置與影像邊界或影像中陸地邊界之距離以對應於主成份波1.08倍波長以上為佳。此外,本文以數值模擬之點波源波場探討波形震盪個數對空間域以及波數域解析力造成之影響。分析結果得知,應用二維Morlet小波母函數分析遙測影像時,波形震盪個數取在5~10之間較為適當。
  Remote sensing instrumentations signal electric-magnetic waves and detect their reflections to obtain the characteristics of objects. There is no requirement of physical contacts between the probes and the objects. This feature contributes to the cost control and enhancing the capability of wave monitoring since the direct impacts from the relevant environmental loads to the instrumentations can be avoided.
  Reflections of electric-magnetic signals are represented as grey-scale images, in which information of waves can be extracted. Due to the topography effects, however, the wave images are often pronouns high non-homogeneity. To retrieve the wave characteristics from those wave field images, Wavelet Transform Analysis is adopted in present study to establish the 2-D Wavelet Transform directional wave-number spectrum estimation method. Unlike traditional Fourier Transform Method, Wavelet Transform Analysis is capable of constructing the spatial and spectral structures from non-homogeneous images. Moreover, the optimal resolution of both the spatial and spectral domain could be yielded by adjusting the scale and sifting the location of mother wavelet function. The relationship between the Wavelet coefficients and wave spectral parameters as well as the size of modulated window and the wave image are derived accordingly afterward. From the numerical simulation tests, the validity and feasibility of proposed method are examined.
  To justify the accuracy of this method, images of two central wave sources conditions and random wave fields are simulated and used as the inputs of propose method. From the results, it is suggested that the distance between the modulated window centers to the image border should not less than 1.08 times the peak frequency wave length.    
Furthermore, the parameter n0 of the Morlet mother wavelet function should be selected in the range 5~10 to obtain optimal resolution in both spatial and spectral domain.
摘 要 i
Abstact ii
誌 謝 iv
目 錄 v
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix

第一章 緒 論 1
  1-1 波浪遙測的重要性 1
  1-2 遙測技術觀測波浪之前人研究 2
    1-2-1 波浪遙測技術發展 3
    1-2-2 波浪遙測的研究概況 5
    1-2-3 傳統遙測影像之分析方法 6
  1-3 研究目的與方法 8
  1-4 本文架構 8
第二章 二維小波轉換分析遙測影像之理論探討 13
  2-1 小波轉換理論基礎 13
    2-1-1 二維小波轉換理論式 13
    2-1-2 二維小波母函數特性 15
  2-2 二維小波轉換之波數-空間域特性 16
    2-2-1 小波轉換之位移參數與子影像位置之關係 17
    2-2-2 小波轉換之尺度參數與成分波的頻率關係 18
  2-3 二維小波轉換視窗寬度 19
    2-3-1 空間視窗寬度 20
    2-3-2 波數視窗寬度 21
第三章 數值模擬驗證 25
  3-1 空間波場影像的模擬 25
    3-1-1 單向規則波場之模擬 25
    3-1-2 多向規則波場之模擬 27
    3-1-3 多向不規則波場之模擬 28
    3-1-4 點波源波場之模擬 29
  3-2 規則波模擬影像分析結果驗證 30
    3-2-1 單向規則波場之分析結果 30
    3-2-2 四向規則波(不重疊的二維波場)之分析結果 31
  3-3 不規則波模擬影像分析結果驗證 33
  3-4 點波源波場模擬影像之分析結果驗證 34
第四章 二維小波轉換的空間視窗與波數(空間頻率)視窗特性之探討 49
  4-1 二維小波視窗之調變特性 49
    4-1-1 應用小波調變視窗分析波場影像之優點 50
    4-1-2 影像邊界及陸地資訊對小波轉換分析結果之影響 51
  4-2 小波視窗中波形震盪個數之研究 52
    4-2-1 波形震盪個數之特性 52
    4-2-2 分析遙測影像時波形震盪個數之選定 53
第五章 結論與建議 66
參考文獻 68
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