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研究生:葉姍霈
研究生(外文):Sun-Pei Yeh
論文名稱:台灣海域高解析度潮汐模式之建立─敏感度試驗
論文名稱(外文):Development of a high-resolution tidal model for the seas around Taiwan─Sensitivity tests
指導教授:莊士賢莊士賢引用關係高家俊高家俊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Laurence Zsu-Hsin ChuangChia-Chuen Kao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:河海工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:穩定度潮汐模式巢狀網格
外文關鍵詞:tidal modelnest gridstability
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:11
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  海洋佔地球總面積百分之七十,民眾生活與海洋息息相關。為能達到海洋永續經營的目的,必須掌握及瞭解海象特性。海象包括波浪、潮汐、海溫、海流及風等因子,其中潮汐影響了海洋、海岸工程之設計規劃、施工、航運等,近年來在災難搶救及遊憩規劃上,更迫切地需要即時的潮汐資訊作為決策的依據。數值模式之建立為潮汐預報的方法之一,利用作業化數值模式進行潮汐運動模擬,必須滿足計算過程穩定、計算結果準確與計算時間短的要求,本文應用POM模式在巢狀網格架構上進行台灣海域潮汐運動模擬,改進其計算穩定度並驗證模式的準確性。
  本文應用原始碼公開、已被利用為作業化模式的海洋數值模式─POM,模擬環台灣海域潮汐變化。由於開邊界上實測潮位資料取得不易,本文採巢狀網格架構,利用三個潮汐模式─全球潮汐模式(Kantha,1995)、大區域潮汐模式與小區域潮汐模式作兩層網格系統的相嵌,以大模式的模擬結果作為小模式邊界條件的輸入,用以處理邊界水位的問題。
  在模式穩定度的探討上,本文根據王(1999)研究設定當模式計算所得的流速大於5m/sec時為不穩定狀態。在此設定條件下針對主要影響模式穩定的因素:地形、積分時步長的配置、邊界水位的輸入以及摩擦係數的設定進行測試,測試結果顯示:邊界水位設定以輻射邊界條件較對稱邊界的模擬結果穩定;建議在大區域潮汐模式中,外模的積分時步長取8秒、內模取480秒,小區域模式中外、內模的積分時步長分別取6秒與240秒時,此時模式為最穩定的狀態;針對模擬的區域而言,潮汐變化受地形因素的影響不大;摩擦係數的設定上利用考慮水深變化的平均流速之曼寧公式模擬結果比利用僅考慮最底層流速變化的摩擦係數公式與實測水位接近。
  在模式驗證上,本文利用環台灣12個潮位站實測資料與模式模擬結果比較,結果顯示:西海岸地區除海峽中部M2與K1分潮的實測與模擬值相差大於10公分外,其餘地區均與實測值接近,整體均方根誤差為11公分。東海岸地區M2分潮模擬值與實測值相差約30公分,K1分潮雖在蘇澳、花蓮兩站與實測值的差異為10公分左右,但因K1分潮潮差原本就不大,整理而言模式在東岸的表現較西岸差。
  Among the oceanographic phenomena, tide is one of the most important factors that bring direct impacts to the inhabitants in the coastal zones. With the economic progress over the past decades in Taiwan, the demand of tidal forecast is urgently requested concerning the increasing near-shore activities and coastal disaster rescues. It is the goal to establish the high resolution tidal model that forecast the water elevation and tidal current around Taiwan operationally. In present study, Princeton Ocean Model (POM), which had been utilized as operational model, is adopted to simulate the tidal phenomenon around Taiwan. To satisfy the stable, accurate and computation time-saving requirements of operation model, it is the purpose to verify, validate and improve the model so as to meet the needs in the local environments.
  To obtain the water elevation and tidal current on the open boundaries of the focused area, nested system that combines three meshes is applied. The proposed nestled system consists of three sub models, which are the global tidal model Kantha (Kantha, 1995), Asian continental shelf sea POM model and Taiwan water POM model. Computational results from the gross mesh model are used as inputs to the finer mesh regional models so as to get high resolution tidal data around Taiwan as well as to keep in the balance with the computation time in the viewpoint of routine forecast operation.
  It is the first step to exam the computational stability of the nested system. Referring to Wang (1999), tidal current speed larger than 5 m/s is used as criterion indicating the divergence during the computation. The factors that might influence the computation stability are then tested accordingly, i.e. the topography, time step setting, boundary condition setting, and friction coefficients setting. It is found from the results of series testing that radiative boundary condition setting gives more stable model computation. Moreover it is also suggested that the time step in the external module should set to 8 seconds and 480 seconds in the internal module of the Asian continental shelf sea POM model, and 6 seconds in the external module, 240 seconds in the internal module of the Regional Taiwan water POM model to yield better computation stability. On the other hand, Manning formula, which reflects the average current speed in varies water depths, is more representative than the original POM friction formula, which only consider the bottom velocity variation in these cases.
  The model is then validated by the field data that measured by 12 tidal stations around Taiwan. It is found that the model prediction is close to the field data in the western coastal of Taiwan except the predicted M2 and K1 tides, which performs about 10 cm difference with the field data. The overall RMS error is 11 cm. Regarding to the validation of proposed model with respect to the field data measured in the eastern coast of Taiwan, 30 cm difference of M2 tide and 10 cm of K1 tide are revealed. Generally, proposed Taiwan water tide model features better performance in the western part than eastern part of Taiwan island.
中文摘要I
英文摘要II
目錄IV
表目錄V
圖目錄VI
第一章 緒論1
1-1 研究動機與目的1
1-2 文獻回顧3
1-3 本文組織6
第二章 數值模式8
2-1 區域潮汐模式介紹8
2-2 全球潮汐模式介紹16
2-3 巢化網格模式架構19
第三章 影響模式穩定因素30
3-1 地形影響31
3-2 時步長設定32
3-3 邊界水位設定影響34
3-4 海底摩擦35
第四章 模式結果與驗證41
4-1 全球潮汐模式結果之驗證41
4-2 區域潮汐模式結果之驗證42
4-3 台灣海域潮汐模式結果之驗證44
第五章 結論與建議62
5-1 結論62
5-2 建議63
1.Blumberg, A. F., and G. L. Mellor (1987), ”A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model”, Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, Vol. 4, pp. 1-162.Kang, S. K., S. R. Lee and H. J.Lie (1998), ”Fine grid tidal modeling of the Yellow and East China Seas”, Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 18, pp. 739-7723.Kantha, L. H. (1995), ”Barotropic tides in the global ocean from a nonlinear tidal model assimilating altimetric tide, part I model description and results” , Http://www.cast.msstate.edu/Tide2D4.Lefevre, F., C. Le Provost, and F. H. Lyard, ”How can we improve a global ocean tide model at a regional scale? A test on the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea”, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 105, No.C4, pp. 8707-87255.Mellor, G. L. (1998), “User guide for a three-dimensional, primitive equation, numerical ocean model”, Http://www.aos.princeton.edu/WWWPUBLIC/htdocs.pom/6.王玉懷 (1999), ”TSNOW現場觀測資料報告”, 台灣海峽海況即時預報模式計畫(TSNOW)研討會論文集, pp. 16-217.林琿、閻國年、宋志堯 (2000), ”東中國海潮波系統與海岸演變模擬研究”, 科學出版社8.李賢文(1989), ”台灣鄰近海域潮汐預報數值模式”, 第二屆海洋數值模式研討會論文集, pp. 179-1959.吳旭朕(1986), ”台灣西海岸潮汐變化特性分析”, 國立成功大學水利及海洋工程研究所碩士論文10.莊文傑 (2000), ”台灣海峽潮波協振盪之研究”, 國立台灣大學造船及海洋工程學研究所博士論文11.郭一羽 (2001), “海岸工程學”, 文山書局12.詹森(1995), ”台灣海峽流場季節變化之研究”, 國立台灣大學海洋研究所博士論文13.詹森、邱朝聰、連棨慧 (1999), ”TSNOW現場觀測資料報告,台灣海峽海況及時預報模式第二年─潮汐、潮流數值模擬結果之驗證”, 台灣海峽海況即時預報模式計畫(TSNOW)研討會論文集, pp. 22-3314.劉肖孔(1983), ”中國海峽三度空間數值模式”, 行政院科技顧問組15.劉文俊 (1999), “台灣的潮汐”, 萬森興業有限公司
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