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研究生:楊姝鈺
研究生(外文):Shu-Yu Yang
論文名稱:斯特林堡《茱莉小姐》一劇的人物分析研究─社會階級與生活態度
論文名稱(外文):An Analytical Study of the Characterization of Strindberg’s Miss Julie: The Social Class vs. The Living Attitude
指導教授:閻振瀛閻振瀛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Joseph C. Y. Yen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:斯特林堡茱莉小姐
外文關鍵詞:August Strindberg's Miss Julie
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斯特林堡堪稱文學史上一位顯要的戲劇、小說,甚至短篇故事作家,其作品內容範疇涵蓋達爾文理論、人類心理分析以及斯特林堡根據當代自然主義思潮演繹而來的文學觀。茱莉小姐一劇便是其早期自然主義思潮的傑出劇作之一,該部自然主義的悲劇作品擴展了達爾文提出適者生存之理論,也透過夢境暗示宿命論觀點與人類心理研究之說。在該劇之前言中,斯特林堡以生物生存現象點出適者生存之道;他認為生物體態的大小並非絕對,蜜蜂可能殺死一隻獅子,至少,也可能將其逼至發狂。透過這種達爾文學派思想,斯特林堡提供讀者更廣大的空間來思考所謂適者生存之議題;而這些議題,在斯特林堡的巧妙安排下,透過劇中人物的社會階級與生活態度一一呈現,而一齣不可逃避的悲劇也因此完成。
本論文的研究中心在於茱莉小姐一劇的人物研究,計分五章。第一章節著重於十九世紀歐洲的哲學、文學背景,本劇劇作家─斯特林堡,以及茱莉小姐一劇劇作介紹;而第二、三、四章,將透過各個人物角色的社會階級及其生活態度切入人物研究分析。不同的社會階級造就了劇中三人對於生命、生活的不同態度,而這不同的生活態度,著實影響了他們對於活著的定義與其真正存活的可能性。儒家的『正名學說』:『君君,臣臣,父父,子子』直接點出人們在不同社會階級中自我意識的重要性。茱莉小姐之死,除了自然主義之環境論,遺傳論學說,儒家『正名學說』更是一針見血地道出茱莉和冉恩的致命傷。同樣的理論,在克莉絲汀身上得到正面印證。克莉斯汀,尼采眼中的奴性代表,在孔子眼中,卻是正名學說的最佳代言人:一個稱職的僕人。且克莉絲汀的性格亦帶有了中國道家思想『柔』與『不爭』的成分,使其成為是全劇唯一真正存活的角色,頗堪玩味。
August Strindberg, an outstanding playwright, novelist, and short-story writer, who in his works combined the Darwinian theory, studies of human psychology, further definition of naturalism as well. Miss Julie is supposed to be a naturalistic tragedy. It is the Darwinian struggle in life and self- analysis through dreams that compose the characteristics of this naturalistic masterpiece. In the preface to the play, Strindberg offers readers hints by dint of suggesting a special scene in biological links. He says, “Life is not so mathematically idiotic as only to permit the big to eat the small; it happens just as often that the bee kills the lion or at least drives it mad.” Through the suggestion, Strindberg offers readers much space to think the question about the so-called “survival of the fittest”, which is keyed to the understanding of the fatal ending of the play in the light of the social class and living attitude.
This thesis is divided into five chapters. The philosophical and literal background of Strindberg’s time, the introduction of the playwright and the play will be included in the first chapter. An analytical study of the characters: Julie, Jean and Kristin will be respectively discussed in the following three chapters. It is the difference of social class that contributes the different living attitudes of Julie, Jean and Kristin. Confucius’ doctrine of “Rectification of Name” maintains the social order, however. Because lacking of self-consciousness of their class, Julie and Jean misstep into the net of doom. It means a lot to us that only Kristin leads a peaceful life even she is soft and not striving. I guess perhaps the Ancient Chinese philosopher Lao-tzu might have already known the truth.
Chapter One Introduction 1
Chapter Two Miss Julie 21
Chapter Three Jean 44
Chapter Four Kristin 60
Chapter Five Conclusion 72
Bibliography 82
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Cole, Toby, ed. Playwrights on Playwriting; The Meaning and Making of Modern Drama from Ibsen to Ionesco. New York: Hill and Wang 1960. pp. 171-182
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Fuchs, Elinor. “Pattern over Character: the Modern Mysterium,” The Death of Character. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996, pp.36-51
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Heller, Otto. Prophets of Dissent: Essays on Maeterlinck, Strindberg, Nietzsche and Tolstoy. New York: Kennickat Press Inc. 1918
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Strindberg, August. Miss Julie. Trans. Eieabeth Springge. Masters of Modern Drama. Ed. Block, Haskell M. and Shedd, Roberg G. New York: Random House, 1962, pp. 94-111
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Szondi, Peter. Theory of the Modern Drama. Ed and Trans: Michael Hays. Foreword by Jochen Schulte-Sasse. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987
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丁往道編譯 孔子語錄100則 100 Sayings of Confucius 臺北市:臺灣商務,民八十七
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包曼 Franklin L. Baumer著 李日章譯 西方近代思想史 臺北市:聯經出版事業公司 民七十七
艾瑞克.班特萊 E. Bentley撰 林國源譯 現代戲劇批評 臺北巿: 聯鳴文化公司出版,民七十四
李丹曉等撰 尼采與超人 臺北市:正文出版社 , 民六十三
林翠萍注譯 老子讀本 臺南市:漢風出版社,民八十二
邱鎮京著 論語思想體系 臺北市:文津出版社,民八十一
張振東編著 西洋哲學導論 臺北市:臺灣學生,民七十八
厨川白村著 陳曉南譯 西洋近代文藝思潮 臺北市:志文 1996
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