跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.27.215) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/04/20 08:58
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:陳潔儒
研究生(外文):Chieh-Ju Chen
論文名稱:探討不同產品之廣告所引發的情感反應、認知反應、廣告態度、與廣告說服力之因果關係
論文名稱(外文):Consumer Response to Advertising:The Interrelationships Among Emotions, Cognition, Attitude, and Persuasion – Moderating Effects of Product Categories
指導教授:吳萬益吳萬益引用關係
指導教授(外文):Henry Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系碩博士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:廣告態度產品涉入程度廣告訴求情感反應認知反應
外文關鍵詞:Attitude toward the AdvertisementCognitive ResponseEmotional ResponseProduct InvolvementAdvertising Appeals
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:24
  • 點閱點閱:1900
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:695
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:5
隨著媒體科技的進步與普及,行銷人員愈趨重視廣告媒介的傳播效果。如何透過廣告媒體來有效地影響消費者的思考模式與行為準則便成為大家極為重視的一項課題。
在本研究中,我們將建立一套系統性架構,探討消費者對廣告資訊的吸收程序,我們也針對不同的產品類別來加以驗證、比較,企圖了解消費者對產品的涉入程度是否會影響廣告資訊的傳遞程序。此模型包含:廣告所引發的情緒性反應、認知反應、廣告態度、與廣告說服力。除了驗證個構面因素間的互動關係外,本研究也比較不同的廣告訴求在情感反應、認知反應、廣告態度、與廣告說服力等構面因素之差異性為何。透過這些問題的探討與研究,可以讓廣告行銷人員更加有效地了解消費者將如何吸收轉化廣告資訊的傳遞,並進一步擬定出更加符合自身產品特性的廣告行銷策略。

經過一連串的資訊蒐集與分析過程後,本研究結果顯示:
(一)針對高涉入產品而言,由於消費者在決策過程中必須承擔較大的購買風險,因此,廣告資訊的傳遞過程將呈現以下的結果:
1.廣告所引發的正向情感反應與負向情感反應皆會直接影響消費者的認知反應,並藉由認知反應間接影響消費者的廣告態度。
2.無論是何種型式的廣告訴求手法(包含溫馨訴求、幽默訴求、恐懼訴求、與道德訴求)皆會引發消費者的認知反應,也就是說,針對高涉入程度的產品而言,這四種廣告訴求都是可行的廣告手法。

(二)針對低涉入產品而言,消費者在擬定購買決策時並不需要太多的思考與評估,換句話說,此時消費者所承受的購買風險是很小的,因此,低涉入產品的廣告資訊傳遞過程將會呈現以下的形式:
1.負向情感反應將會直接影響認知反應,並透過認知反應而對廣告態度產生間接影響的效果。
2.正向的情感反應會直接對廣告態度產生顯著的影響效果,而不需透過認知反應來達成。
3.負向情感的廣告訴求方式會產生較高的認知反應,因此,當廣告行銷人員企圖使用恐懼或道德訴求時,產品相關資訊的提供是相當有幫助的。
4.正向情感的廣告訴求方式會產生較高的廣告態度,也就是說,當廣告行銷人員企圖使用溫馨或幽默訴求時,如何引發消費者的正向情感反倒是比較重要的。

關鍵詞:產品涉入程度、廣告訴求、情感反應、認知反應、廣告態度。
As the use of media technology became more popular, marketing managers have become increasingly concerned about the communication effects of their commercial stimuli. Therefore, much attention has been devoted to how advertisements take their effects in changing people’s minds and behaviors.
In this research, a hierarchical model was established to investigate the message processing routes, comprising the emotional and cognitive responses evoked by the advertisements, attitudes toward the ads, and consumers’ persuasion elicited by the commercials, for different product categories. In addition, the differences of the research variables among different advertising appeals are also examined. This study indeed can help advertisers to comprehend consumers’ reactions toward the advertisements, further developing the most appropriate tactics in for the particular product.

Through a serious of data collection and analysis, this study concludes the following results:
(1)For the high involvement products, the consumer receives higher risk in purchase decision. Therefore, the message processing routes will be:
* both negative emotional response and positive emotional response will directly influence cognitive response and have an indirect influence on attitude toward the advertisement via cognitive thinking.
* all advertising appeals will elicit consumer’s cognitive thinking toward the advertisement and all of them may be powerful on delivering advertising message.

(2)For the low involvement products, the consumer requires little thoughts in purchasing decision. In other words, the risk for choosing the wrong brand is low. Therefore, the message processing routes will be:
* negative emotional response will indirectly influence attitude toward the advertisement via cognitive response. That is to say central processing route appears when negative emotional response is evoked.
* positive emotional response will directly influence attitude toward the advertisement. In other words, consumer will generate little message relevant thinking when positive emotional response is evoked.
* negative emotional appeals may be more powerful on creating cognitive response. Therefore, advertisers should supply more information when using the fear or moral appeals.
* positive emotional appeals may be more effective on creating attitude toward the advertisement. That is to say when advertisers use the warm or humor appeals to promote their products, the key point is how to evoke higher level of positive emotional response and not the supply of information.

Keywords: Product Involvement, Advertising Appeals, Emotional Response, Cognitive Response, Attitude toward the Advertisement
ONE INTRODUCTION……………………………………………… 1
1.1 Research Background……………………………………… 1
1.2 Research Objectives……………………………………… 4
1.3 Research Structure and Research Flow…………………… 5

TWO LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………… 7
2.1 Introduction………………………………………………… 7
2.2 The Models of Consumer-Response Stages………………… 8
2.3 Key Variables and the Interactivities……………………… 11
2.3.1 Advertising Appeals………………………………… 11
2.3.2 Product Classification………………………………… 13
2.3.3 Emotional Response………………………………… 19
2.3.4 Cognitive Response…………………………………… 24
2.3.5 Attitude toward the Advertisement…………………… 28

THREE RESEARCH HYPOTHESES AND METHODOLOGY……… 32
3.1 Introduction………………………………………………… 32
3.2 The Conceptual Model……………………………………… 33
3.3 Research Hypotheses……………………………………… 34
3.4 Construct Definition and Measurement…………………… 36
3.4.1 Product Categories………………………………… 36
3.4.2 Emotional Responses………………………………… 37
3.4.3 Cognitive Response…………………………………… 38
3.4.4 Attitude toward the Advertisement…………………… 38
3.4.5 Persuasion…………………………………………… 40
3.5 Research Design and Procedure…………………………… 41
3.5.1 Sampling Plan………………………………………… 42
3.5.2 Data Collection……………………………………… 43
3.5.3 Data Analysis Procedures…………………………… 45

FOUR RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND RESULTS…………………… 47
4.1 Factor Analysis and Reliability Tests……………………… 49
4.1.1 Emotional Responses………………………………… 50
4.1.2 Cognitive Response…………………………………… 51
4.1.3 Attitude toward the Advertisement…………………… 51
4.1.4 Persuasion…………………………………………… 52
4.2 Products Classification……………………………………… 55
4.3 Differences of Advertising Appeals between
Product Categories……………………………… 56
4.3.1 Differences of Research Variables among Ad Appeals.. 56
4.3.2 Differences of Research Variables for High
Involvement Products………………………… 59
4.3.3 Differences of Research Variables for Low
Involvement Products………………………… 61
4.3.4 Differences of Research Variables for High and Low
Involvement Products…………………… 63
4.4 Correlation Between Different Constructs …… 65
4.5 Path Analysis for Hypothetical Relationships…………… 71
4.5.1 Path Analysis for High-Involved Products…………… 71
4.5.2 Path Analysis for Low-Involved Products…………… 75
4.5.3 Competing Path Analysis for High and
Low Involvement Products…………………… 78

FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS……………… 82
5.1 Conclusions of Major Findings……………………………… 83
5.2 Limitations and Recommendations………………………… 87

REFERENCE FOR THIS STUDY………………………………………… Ⅰ

APPENDIX Ⅰ- ADVERTISEMENTS FOR THIS STUDY……………… Ⅱ

APPENDIX Ⅱ- QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THIS STUDY………………… Ⅲ
Aaker, David A. and Donald E. Brussone (1985), “Causes of Irritation in
Advertising,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 49 (2), 47-57.

------, Douglas M. Stayman, and Michael R. Hagerty (1986), “Warmth in Advertising: Measurement, Impact and Sequence Effects.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 12 (March), 365-381.

------, Douglas M. Stayman, and Richard Vezina (1988), ”Identifying Feelins Elicited by Advertising” Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 5 (Spring), 1-16.

Alwitt, Linda F and Paul R. Prabhaker (1994), “Identifying Who Dislikes Television Advertising: Not by Demographics Alone.” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 34 (6), 17-29.

Batra, Rajeev. and Michael L. Ray (1986), “Affective Responses Mediating Acceptance of Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 13 (September), 234-249.

------ and Morris B. Holbrook (1990), ”Developing a Typology of Affective Responses to Advertising : A Test of Reliability and Validity,” Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 7 (1), 11-25.

------ and Douglas M. Stayman (1990), “The Roll of Mood in Advertising Effectiveness.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 17 (September), 203-214.

------ and Olli T. Ahtola (1991), “The Measurement and Role of Utilitarian and Hedonic Attitudes.” Marketing Letters, in press.

------ and Debra Stephens (1994), “Attitudinal Effects of Ad-Evoked Moods and Emotions,” Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 11 (May/June), 199-215.

Berger, Ida E. and Andrew A. Mitchell (1989), “The Effect of Advertising on Attitude Accessibility, Attitude Confidence, and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 16 (December), 269-279.

Biel, A. L. and C. A. Bridgwater (1990), “Attributes of Likable Television Commercials.” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 30 (3), 38-44.

Brown, Steven P. and Douglas M. Stayman (1992), “Antecedents and Consequences of Attitude toward the Ad: A Meta-analysis.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 19 (June), 34-51.

……; Homer, Pamela M. and J. Jeffrey Inman (1998), “A Meta-Analysis of Relationships Between Ad-Evoked Feelings and Advertising Responses.” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 35, (February), 114-126.

Burke, Marian C. and Julie A. Edell (1986), “Ad Reactions Over Time: Capturing Changes in the Real World,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 13 (June), 114-118.

Calder, B. J., L. M. Philips, and A. M. Tybout (1981), “Designing Research for Application.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 8 (September), 197-207.

Chattopadhyay, Amitava and Kunal Basu (1990), “Humor in Advertising: The Moderating Role of Prior Brand Evaluation.” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.27 (November), 466-476.

Chen, Qimei and William D. Wells (1999), “Attitude toward the Site” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 39, Issue. 5, 27-37.

Christ, William G. (1985), “Voter Preference and Emotion: Using Emotional Response to Classify Decided and Undecided Voters,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 15 (3), 237-254.

Claeys, C., A. Swinnen, and P. Vanden Abeele (1995), “Consumers’ Means-End Chains for “Think” and “Feel” Products.” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 12 (May), 193-208.

Cohen, Joel B. (1987), “Attitude, Affect and Consumer Behavior,” Working Paper #53, Center for Consumer Research, University of Florida.

Conlisk, John (1996), “Why Bounded Rationality?” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 34 (June), 669-700.

Cook, William A., (1992), “Love, Hate and Likability.” Journal of Advertising Research, March/April, 7-9.

Coulter, Keith S. (1998), “The Effects of Affective Responses to Media Context on Advertising Evaluations.” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 27, Issue. 4 (Winter), 41-51.

Curren, Mary T. and Katrin R. Harich (1994), “Consumers’ Mood States: The Mitigating Influence of Personal Relevance on Product Evaluations,” Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 11 (March/April), 91-107.

Edell, Julie A. and Marian C. Burke (1987), “The Power of Feelings in Understanding Advertising Effects,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 14 (December), 421-433.

Foekens, Eihte W, Peter S H Leeflang, and Dich R. Wittink (1997), “Hierarchical versus other market share models for markets with many items.” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 14 (Oct), Issue. 4, 357-378.

Gallagher, Katherine, Jeffrey Parsons, and K. Kale. Foster (2001), “A Tale of Two Studies: Replicating Advertising Effectiveness and Content Evaluation in Print and on the Web.” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol.41, Issue. 4 (July/August), 71-83.

Garbarino, Ellen C. and Julie A. Edell (1997), “Cognitive Effort, Affect, and Choice.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 24 (September), 147-158.

Guiltinan, Joseph P, Gordon W Paul, and Thomas J. Madden (1997), “Marketing Management Strategies and Programs, Six Edition.” The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, p.250.

Hale, Jerold L., Robert Lemieux, and Paul A Monogeau (1995), “Cognitive Processing of Fear-Arousing Message Content” Journal of Communication Research, Vol. 22, No. 4 (August), 459-474.

Haley, Russel I. and Allan L. Baldinger (1991), “The ARF Copy Research Validity Project,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 31 (April/May), 11-32.

Holbrook, Morris B. (1986), “Emotion in the Consumption Experience: Toward a New Model of the Human Consumer,” in The Role of Affect in Consumer Behavior: Emerging Theories and Applications, ed. R. A. Peterson et al., Lexington, MA: Heath, 17-52.

------and John O’Shaughnessy (1984), “The Role of Emotion in Advertising,” Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 1 (Summer), 45-64.

------, Robert W. Chestnut, Terence A. Oliva, and Eric A. Greenleaf (1984), “Play as a Consumption Experience: The Roles of Emotions, Performance, and Personality in the Enjoyment of Games,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 11 (September), 728-739.

------and Rajeev Batra (1987), “Assessing the Role of Emotions as Mediators of Consumer Responses to Advertising.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 14 (December), 404-420.

Isen, A. M. (1993), “The Influence of Positive Affect on Cognitive Organization: Some Implications for Consumer Decision Making in Response to Advertising.” In Advertising Exposure, Memory, and Choice, A. A. Mitchell, ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

James, William L. and Arthur J. Kover (1992), “Observations: Do Overall Attitudes Toward Advertising Affect Involvement with Specific Advertisements? ” Journal of Advertising Research, Sep/Oct, 78-83.

Kahneman, Daniel and Dan Lovallo (1992), “Timid Decisions and Bold Forecasts: A Cognitive Perspective on Risk Taking,” in Fundamental Issues in Strategy, ed. Richard Rumelt, D. Schendel, and D. Teece, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Keller, Kevin Lane (1991a), “Cue Compatibility and Framing in Advertising.” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 28 (February), 42-57.

------ (1991b), “Memory and Evaluative Effects in Competitive Advertising Environments.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 17 (March), 463-476.

Krosnick, Jon A and R. E. Petty (1994), “Attitude Strength: An Overview,” in Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences, eds. R. E. Petty and J. A. Krosnick, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Laczniak, Russell N., Darrel D. Muehling, and Sanford Grossbart (1989), ”Manipulating Message Involvement in Advertising Research.” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 18, No. 2, 28-38.

Laskey, H. A, R. J. Fox, and M. R. Crask (1995), “The Relationship between Advertising Message Strategy and Television Commercial Effectiveness,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 35 (2), 31-39.

Lavidge, Robert J. and Gary A. Steiner (1961), “A Model for Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness,” Journal of Marketing, October, p.61.

Leclerc, France, Bernd H. Schmitt, and Laurette Dube (1994), “Foreign Branding and Its Effects on Product Perceptions and Attitudes,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 31, Issue. 2 (May), 263-270.

Lee, Yih Hwai and Charlotte Mason (1999), ”Responses to Information Incongruency in Advertising: The Role of Expectancy, Relecancy and Humor ,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.26 (2), 156-168.

Lord, Kenneth R. and Robert E. Burnkrant (1993), “Attention Versus Distraction: The Interactive Effect of Program Involvement and Attentional Devices on Commercial Processing.” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 22 (March), Number. 1, 47-60.


Luts, Richard J. (1985), “Affective and Cognitive Antecedents of Attitude Toward the Ad: A Conceptual Framework,” in Psychological Processes and Advertising Effects: Theory, Research and Application, L. F. Alwitt and A. A. Mitchell, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 45-63.

Macinnis, Deborah J. and C. Whan Park (1991), “The Differential Role of Characteristics of Music in High- and Low-Involvement Consumers’ Processing of Ads.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 18 (September), 161-173.

MacKenzie, Scott B. and Richard J. Lutz (1989), “An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents of Attitude Toward the Ad in an Advertising Pre-testing Context.” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 53 (April), 48-65.

------, Richard J. Lutz, and George E. Belch (1986), “The Role of Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectiveness: A Test of Competing Explanations.” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 23 (May), 130-143.

Mehrabian, Albert and James A. Russell (1974), “An Approach to Environmental Psychology.” Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mehta, Abhilasha. (2000), “Advertising Attitudes and Advertising Effectiveness,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 40, Iss.3 (May/Jun), 67-72.

Miniard, Paul W., Sunil Bhatla, and Randall L. Rose (1990), “On the Formation and Relationship of Ad and Brand Attitudes: An Experimental and Causal Analysis,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 27 (August), 290-303.

Muehling, Darrel D., Russell N. Laczniak, and Jeffrey J. Stoltman (1991), “The Moderating Effects of Ad Message Involvement: A Reassessment.” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 20 (June), Number. 2, 29-38.

Murry, Jr. John P., John L Lastovicka, and Surendra N. Singh (1992), ”Feeling and Liking Responses to Television Programs: An Examination of Two Explanations for Media-Context Effects.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 18 (March), 441-451.

Newell, Allan and Herbert A. Simon (1990), “Computer Science as Empirical Inquiry: Symbols and Search,” in Foundations of Cognitive Science: The Essential Readings, ed. Jay L. Garfield. New York: Paragon, 113-138.

Olney, Thomas J., Morris B. Holbrook, and Rajeev Batra (1991), “Consumer Responses to Advertising: The Effects of Ad Content, Emotions, and Attitude toward the Ad on Viewing Time,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 17 (March), 440-453.

Petty, R. E., D. W. Schumann, S. A. Richman, and A. J. Strathman (1993), “Positive mood and persuasion: Different roles of affect under high- and low-elaboration conditions,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 64, 5-20.

Plutchik, Robert. (1980), “Emotion: A Psychoevalutionary Synthesis,” New York: Harper & Row.

Preston, Ivan L. (1982), “The Association Model of the Advertising Communication Process,” Journal of Advertising, 11 (2), 3-15.

Ratchford, B. T. (1987), “New Insights about the FCB Grid.” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 27, Aug/Sep. Issue. 4, 24-38.

……and Vaughn, R. (1989), “On the Relationships Between Motives and Purchase Decisions: Some Empirical Approaches.” In Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 16, T. K. Srull, ed. Provo, UT: Associatio for Consumer Research.

Rogers, Everett. (1962), “Diffusion of Innovations,” Free Press, New York, P.79-86.

Rossiter, John R. and Larry Percy (1987), “Advertising and Promotion Management.” New York: McGraw – Hill.

……, Larry Percy, and Robert J. Donovan (1991), “A Better Advertising Planning Grid.” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 31 (5), 11-21.

Russell, James A., Anna Weiss, and Gerald A. Mendelsohn (1989), “Affect Grid: A Single-Item Scale of Pleasure and Arousal,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 57 (3), 493-502.

Scott, Cliff, David M Klein, and Jennings Bryant (1990), “Consumer Response to Humor in Advertising: A Series of Field Studies Using Behavioral Observation.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 16 (March), 498-501.

Shavitt, Sharon, Pamela Lowrey, and James Haefner (1998), “Public Attitude toward Advertising: More Favorable Than You Might Think,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 38, Issue. 4 (Jul/Aug), 7-22.

Snipes, Robin L., Michael S. LaTour, and Sara J. Bliss (1999), “A Model of the Effects of Self-Efficacy on the Perceived Ethicality and Performance of Fear Appeals in Advertising.” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 19, Issue. 3 (Apr), 273-285.

Spotts, H. E., M. G. Weinberger, and A. L. Parsons (1997), “Assessing the Use and Impact of Humor on Advertising Effectiveness: A Contingency Approach.” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 26 (3), 17-32.

Strong, E. D. (1925), “The Psychology of Selling,” McGraw – Hill, New York, p.9.

Swee Hoon Ang and Sharon Y. M. Low. (2000), “Exploring the Dimensions of Ad Creativity.” Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 17, No. 10 (October), 835-854.

Toncar, Mark and James Munch (2001), ”Consumer Responses to Tropes in Print Advertising.” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, Number. 1 (Spring), 55-65.

Vaughn, R. (1980), “How advertising Works: A Planning Model.” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 20, Issue. 5, 17-33.

……(1986), “How Advertising Works: A Planning Model Revisited.” Journal of advertising Research, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, 57-66.

Yih Hwai Lee (2000), “Manipulating Ad Message Involvement through Information Expectancy: Effects on Attitude Evaluation and Confidence.” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 39 (Summer), Number. 2, 29-42.

Youn, Seounmi, Tao Sun, William D. Wells, and Xinshu Zhao (2001), “Commercial Liking and Memory: Moderating Effects of Product Categories.” Journal of Advertising Research, May/June, 7-13.

Zhang, Yong (1996), “Responses to humorous advertising: The moderating effect of need for cognition.” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 25, Issue. 1 (Spring), 15-32.

------ and Richard Buda (1999), “Moderating Effects of Need for Cognition on Responses to Positively versus Negatively Framed Advertising Messages.” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Summer), 1-15.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊