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研究生:謝忠穎
研究生(外文):Chung-Ying Hsieh
論文名稱:北祁連褶皺帶中-東段門源盆地周圍火山岩岩石學及地球化學研究
論文名稱(外文):Petrological and Geochemical Studies of the Volcanic Rocks around Menyuan Basin, Central-Eastern Section of the North Qilian Fold Belt, NW China
指導教授:楊宏儀楊宏儀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Houng-Yi Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:地球科學系碩博士班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:147
中文關鍵詞:門源火山岩北祁連盆地活動大陸邊緣
外文關鍵詞:Menyuanvolcanic rocksNorth Qilianbasinactive continental margin
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  本研究區域位於北祁連褶皺帶中-東段,由奧陶紀火山弧所圍之門源盆地,西端起源於祁連縣南方,往東南延伸,北側為札麻什河-景陽嶺弧,南側為紅溝-大坂山弧,東接攘於克圖地區,形成一長約120公里,寬20公里之狹長盆地。盆地中心出露有前寒武基盤岩,晚古生代-新生代沉積層以不整合覆於基盤岩之上。本研究將盆地周圍的火山岩分為四個區域來探討,分別為:盆地西側的「祁連縣南方地區」、南側的「門源南(冰溝村-大坂山)地區」、北側的「大梁-老虎溝地區」及東側的「克圖以東地區」。
  由岩象觀察,祁連縣南方地區之火山岩分為三種類型:(a)角斑岩化玄武質安山岩,普通輝石、斜長石為主要斑晶,基質由細粒斜長石構成,部份輝石蝕變為綠泥石+石英+綠簾石,長石則大多已鈉黝簾石化;(b)細碧岩(Ⅰ),由斜長石與陽起石所組成,斜長石為拉長石、中長石與奧長石,並含有大量鈦鐵礦;(c)細碧岩(Ⅱ),鈉長石為主要斑晶,含少量透輝石。門源南(冰溝村-大坂山)地區分為四種:(a)細碧岩化玄武質安山岩,斑晶幾乎為鈉長石;(b)角斑岩化安山岩,由鈉長石與淡閃石組成,含有少量普通輝石;(c)(變質)安山岩,長石斑晶已絹雲母化;(d)長英質火山岩,以斷層角礫岩產出,岩屑的組成礦物為鈉長石、石英及綠簾石。大梁地區火山岩具二種類型:(a)細碧岩(Ⅲ),以鈉長石斑晶為主,含鈦磁鐵礦普遍存在;(b)細碧岩(Ⅱ),與祁連縣南方的細碧岩(Ⅱ)相似,受後期熱水蝕變,部份輝石退變為綠泥石及黏土礦物,碳酸鹽化程度較高。克圖地區則為細碧岩化玄武質安山岩與細碧岩(Ⅰ)兩類為主,後者與祁連縣南方的細碧岩(Ⅰ)類似,斜長石皆已鈉長化。老虎溝地區之火山角礫岩,岩屑包含有安山岩、流紋岩、石英岩、糜嶺岩、粉砂岩、雜砂岩等,代表火山活動環境靠近陸殼,指示沉積過程中有陸殼物質加入。
  地球化學顯示,祁連縣南方地區三種岩石類型分別為:(a)角斑岩化玄武質安山岩,與隱沒事件有關之陸緣弧火山岩;(b)細碧岩(Ⅰ),與張裂有關之正常型洋脊玄武岩;(c)細碧岩(Ⅱ),與板內張裂有關之玄武岩。門源南地區之(a)細碧岩化玄武質安山岩與(b)角斑岩化安山岩,和大梁地區之細碧岩(Ⅲ),其地球化學資料亦顯示與隱沒事件有關,稀土分配型式為輕稀土富集,重稀土虧損之右傾趨勢,(La/Yb)n≒10具有活動大陸邊緣的火山弧特徵。克圖以東地區之細碧岩(Ⅰ)則具有板內玄武岩與富集型洋脊玄武岩特性,接近洋島-洋脊型火山岩。
  綜合岩象學與地球化學,門源盆地西側之祁連縣地區為陸緣弧火山環境,並伴生有板內玄武岩,屬於火山弧後期張裂階段之岩漿活動,盆地北側與南側則為發育良好之活動陸緣弧,東側之火山岩與前人研究大致相符,為洋島-洋脊型火山岩。
  Menyuan basin is located in the central-eastern section of the North Qilian Fold Belt, NW China. The basin, about 120km long and 20km wide, is oval-shaped and extends in E-W direction. It is confined by the Ordovician volcanic arc at the north (Zamashehe-Jingyangling arc) and at the south (Honggou- Dabanshan arc). The Precambrian basement cropouts in the basin. The basement is overlain uncomformally by the Late Palaeozoic–Cenozoic sedimentary strata. The present research focuses on the volcanoic rocks from the surrounding arcs at Qilianxian area, Dabanshan-Binggoucun areas, Daliang-Laohugou areas, and Ketu area.
  Petrological observation and microprobe analyses show that the volcanic rocks have been spilitized and keratophyrized. The rock types from the Qilianxian area are (a) keratophyrized basaltic andesite which consists of augite, albite, epidote, chlorite, and quartz, (b) spilite(Ⅰ) which is composed of labradorite, andesine, oligoclase, actinolite, and ilmenite, and (c) spilite(Ⅱ) which is composed of albite, and augite. Dabanshan-Binggoucun areas have (a) spilitized basaltic andesite in which the phenocrysts are albitized feldspars, (b) keratophyrized andesite which consists of albite, edenite, augite, magnetite, and ilmenite, (c) altered andesite in which the phenocrysts have been sericitized, and (d) felsic fault breccia containing fragmentary felsic rocks, albite, quartz, and epidote. Daliang-Laohugou areas have two types of volcanic rocks : (a) spilite(Ⅲ) which consists of albite, magnetite, and ilmenite and (b) spilite(Ⅱ) of which the mineral asseblage is similar to that of spilite(Ⅱ) at Qilianxian area. The volcanic breccias at Laohugou area consist of the rock fragments of andesite, rhyolite, mylonite, sandstone, greywacke, and quartz. Ketu area has the spilite(Ⅰ) which is composed of albite, actinolite, and ilmenite.
  Multi-elements plots recognize three types of the volcanic rocks in the present study: (a) the volcanic rocks of active continental margin (andesite and basaltic andesite), (b) oceanic island basalts, and (c) mid-ocean ridge basalts. All three types occur in the Qilianxian area, implying that the tectono-magmatic environment has developed from active continental margin to rifting. Dabanshan-binggoucun and Daliang-Laohugou areas have rock type (a), suggesting that these areas represent Andean-type active continental margin. The volcanic rocks from Ketu area have the geochemical signature of mid-ocean ridge basalts.
第一章、緒論…………………………………………………………1
  1-1 前言…………………………………………………………1
  1-2 區域地質概況………………………………………………2
  1-3 前人研究……………………………………………………3
  1-4 研究目的……………………………………………………8
第二章、研究方法……………………………………………………9
  2-1 野外調查及採集……………………………………………9
  2-2 岩象學觀察…………………………………………………9
  2-3 礦物化學分析………………………………………………9
  2-4 全岩地球化學分析…………………………………………10
  2-5 分析數據誤差值比對………………………………………10
  2-6 化學式計算與Fe3+的估算…………………………………14
第三章、結果與討論…………………………………………………18
  3-1 野外調查……………………………………………………18
  3-2 岩象學………………………………………………………18
    3-2-1 連縣南方地區………………………………………18
    3-2-2 門源南(冰溝村-大坂山)地區 ……………………24
    3-2-3 大梁-老虎溝地區………………………………… 26
    3-2-4 克圖以東地區………………………………………27
  3-3 礦物化學……………………………………………………29
    3-3-1 長石類………………………………………………29
    3-3-2 角閃石類……………………………………………29
    3-3-3 輝石類………………………………………………29
    3-3-4 不透光礦物…………………………………………35
    3-3-5 綠泥石類……………………………………………35
    3-3-6 綠簾石類……………………………………………38
  3-4 全岩地球化學………………………………………………40
    3-4-1 主要元素……………………………………………40
    3-4-2 微量元素……………………………………………44
    3-4-3 稀土元素……………………………………………48
    3-4-4 盆地中雜砂岩之構造環境判別……………………54
第四章、大地構造演化………………………………………………61
  4-1 火山岩地質年代……………………………………………61
  4-2 地體構造演化………………………………………………61
第五章、結論…………………………………………………………65

參考文獻………………………………………………………………66
照片圖版………………………………………………………………72
附表……………………………………………………………………93
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