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研究生:鍾小良
研究生(外文):Siu-Leung Chung
論文名稱:二仁溪河水地球化學和同位素初探
論文名稱(外文):Preliminary Geochemical and Isotopes study of the Erren river water
指導教授:游鎮烽
指導教授(外文):Chen-Feng You
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:地球科學系碩博士班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:二仁溪主要陰陽離子鍶及鈾同位素
外文關鍵詞:major ionsisotope
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:13
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  • 下載下載:116
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
台灣是全世界物理風化最嚴重的地區之一,透過對河水化學成分、鍶及鈾同位素的分析,可靈敏地檢視流域風化的程度。本研究沿著二仁溪流域的十九個測站,按季節分別採集一百多個水樣,進行主要陰陽離子( i.e., Na+、K+、Mg2+、Ca2+、Cl-、HCO3- 及、SO42- 等)的檢測,採用統計學方法,將七百多筆資料的數據用主變量分析(Principal component analysis)與因子分析(Factor analysis),分別施以資料簡化、特性解釋及屬性歸類分群,分析水樣中主要陰陽離子分佈特性、水體間交互作用,以推測水體中各主要離子可能來源;再進一步配合鍶及鈾同位素比值及水文地質資料,探討影響各離子濃度的可能因素,系統性地建立二仁溪流域水化學資料,期能深入瞭解南部地區地表水與其周遭水文、地質環境的相互關係及其季節性變化。因子分析結果發現,控制河水成份變化的最主要三個因子為:海水鹽沫、圍岩組成和人為污染;另外水樣化學亦呈現區域性分佈,且明顯受雨量和氣候的調節。鍶同位素分析結果,顯示四種不同來源的混合作用,其中河口段各測站87Sr/86Sr最小(0.7090∼0.7095),鍶濃度最大,可能受海水影響;中游段87Sr/86Sr最高(0.7105∼0.7125),與當地圍岩風化有關;上游段的 87Sr/86Sr變化範圍則介於兩者之間;另外各支流標本析出有獨特同位素成分。鈾同位素234U/238U 活性度最大在忠義橋採樣點和地下水,分別是2.48和2.32,可能是受深部地下水影響;中游段和上游段234U/238U值分佈在1.50∼1.87與表面逕流、淺層水有關;河口段採樣點可能是受到海水(海水值是1.14)影響,234U/238U 活性比值最低(1.22∼1.25);各支流測站同位素和濃度變化甚大,並和主流有明顯的分別,顯示出與盆地的區域特性有關。
  Taiwan has the highest physical denudation rate in the world. Chemical and isotopic compositions of river water are sensitive tracers for chemical erosion. During the last two years, we have sampled more than 100 river waters at 19 stations along the Er-ren River. Various major (i.e., Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO3- and SO42- ) and trace constituents, as well as Sr and U isotopes, were determined. Applying factor analysis method, we found that the most important factors controlling the river chemical compositions are (1) seasalt contribution and/or tidal effect; (2) ambient rock; and (3) anthropogenic pollutant. Other effects including regional and seasonal variability are also detected.
  The 87Sr/86Sr and 1/Sr plot indicates of mixing among four Sr sources. Four near estuary stations display strong seawater 87Sr/86Sr signature (0.7090∼0.7095). In mid stream stations, much higher 87Sr/86Sr(0.7105∼0.7125)are observed possibly due to chemical weathering of ambient rocks. The isotopic compositions in upstream river waters range 0.7095 to 0.7105. Interestingly, the three different tributary samples show distinctive Sr concentration and isotopic compositions.
  Uranium isotopic compositions vary largely in the Er-ren River. The highest 234U/238U (2.48,2.32) was found at the Chong-yi station and ground water, possibly were affected by deep situated groundwater. All mid and upstream waters show small 234U/238U variations (1.50∼1.87) in strong contrast to that of tributary waters (1.2 to 2.5).The activities of four estuary samples (1.22∼1.25) are similar to that of seawater (1.14).
考試及格證明
致謝
中文摘要……………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………Ⅱ
目錄…………………………………………………………Ⅲ
表目錄………………………………………………………Ⅴ
圖目錄………………………………………………………Ⅵ

第一章 緒論………………………………………………1
1.1 研究背景………………………………………………1
1.2 研究目的………………………………………………………………………2
1.3 前人研究………………………………………………………………………2
1.4 研究區域地質概況……………………………………………………………7
1.5 氣候、水文概況………………………………………………………………9

第二章 樣品採集與分析……………………………………………..12
2.1 河水樣本………………………………………………………………………12
2.1.1 主要離子分析……………………………………………………………….12
2.1.2 同位素分析………………………………………………………………….13
2.2. 沉積物樣本…………………………………………………………………...15
2.2.1 同位素分析………………………………………………………………….15
2.2.2 X -光繞射分析……………………………………………………………….15
2.3 化學分析……………………………………………………………………….16
2.3.1 液體離子層析法……………………………………………………………..16
2.3.2 原子吸收光譜法……………………………………………………………..17
2.4 同位素的化學分離步驟……………………………………………………….18
2.4.1 鍶同位素………………………………………………………………….….19
2.4.2 鈾同位素………………………………………………………………….…19

第三章 研究方法基本原理…………………………………………..20
3.1 主要離子……………………………………………………………………….20
3.2 鍶同位素……………………………………………………………………….21
3.3 鈾同位素……………………………………………………………………….22

第四章 統計分析………..……………………………………………….25
4.1 主變量分析…………………………………………………………………….25
4.2 因子分析……………………………………………………………………….33
4.2.1 因子軸的旋轉………………………………………………………………..36
4.2.2 因子得分……………………………………………………………………..37

第五章 結果與討論……………………………………………………..38
5.1主要離子………………………………………………………………………..38
5.1.1 影響下游流域主要離子混和特性…………………………………………..46
5.1.2 季節性差異…………………………………………………………………..48
5.1.2.1 乾季主要離子影響特性……………………………………………….…..48
5.1.2.2 濕季主要離子影響特性…………………………………………………...52
5.1.3 X -光繞射分析結果…………………………………………………………58
5.2 鍶同位素混和特性……………………………………………………………..59
5.2.1水樣鍶同位素混和特性………………………………………………………59
5.2.2水樣和泥樣鍶同位素比...…………………………………………………….62
5.3 鈾同位素混和特性……………………………………………………………..66
第六章 結論………………………………………………………………..70
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………....72
附錄………………………………………………………………………………..82


表 目 錄
表2.1 本研究水樣編號、採樣地點與其相對距海里程對照表…………14
表5.1 河口樣本基本統計資料…………………………………………….43
表5.2 中、上游樣本基本統計資料………………………………………43
表5.3 河口與中、上游樣本 t 檢定值………………………………….43
表5.4 河口離子相關係數矩陣……………………………………………44
表5.5 河口離子主變量法因子分析特徵值…………………………….44
表5.6 乾季樣本基本統計資料……………………………………………50
表5.7 濕季樣本基本統計資料……………………………………………50
表5.8 乾濕季樣本 t 檢定值……………………………………………...50
表5.9 乾季離子相關係數矩陣……………………………………………51
表5.10 乾季離子主變量法因子分析特徵值……………………………51
表5.11 濕季離子相關係數矩陣……………………………………………54
表5.12 濕季離子主變量法因子分析特徵值……………………………54
表5.13 河水、沉積物鍶同位素數據……………………………….60
表5.14 河水鈾同位素數據………………………………………….67


圖 目 錄
圖1.1 臺灣雨水水樣因子分析圖( Li 1999 )………………………3
圖1.2 臺灣湖水及水庫水樣因子分析圖( Li 1999 )………………3
圖1.3 研究區域地質圖…………………………..…………………8
圖1.4 台南氣象站歷年月平均降雨量圖………………………….10
圖2.1 研究區域採樣點分佈圖…………………………………….13
圖2.2 液體離子層析儀分析流程示意圖………………………….17
圖3.1 鈾 238 U 衰變系列………………………………………….24
圖4.1 主變量分析示意圖………………………………………….26
圖5.1 二仁溪各採樣點總平均離子濃度變化圖………………….39
圖5.2 二仁溪各採樣點乾、濕季氯離子濃度變圖……………….40
圖5.3 二仁溪各採樣點乾、濕季硫酸根離子濃度變圖…………. 40
圖5.4 二仁溪各採樣點乾、濕季鈉離子濃度變圖……………….41
圖5.5 二仁溪各採樣點乾、濕季鉀離子濃度變圖……………….41
圖5.6 二仁溪各採樣點乾、濕季鎂離子濃度變圖……………….42
圖5.7 二仁溪各採樣點乾、濕季鈣離子濃度變圖……………….42
圖5.8 河口離子因子分析特徵值陡坡圖………………………….44
圖5.9 河口水樣因子分析圖……………….. ……………………..46
圖5.10 乾季離子因子分析特徵值陡坡圖………………………...51
圖5.11 乾季水樣因子分析圖……………….………..……………52
圖5.12 濕季水樣因子分析圖…………………………..………….53
圖5.13 濕季離子因子分析特徵值陡坡圖………..…….…………54
圖5.14 X – ray 全岩繞射分析圖…………………………………..57
圖5.15 第18採樣點X – ray 黏土礦物順向試片繞射分析圖…..57
圖5.16 二仁溪各採樣點鍶濃度變化圖…………………………….59
圖5.17 二仁溪水樣鍶元素分佈圖………………………………….61
圖5.18 二仁溪水、沉積物樣本,鍶元素分佈圖………………….61
圖5.19 二仁溪各採樣點水樣234U/238U活性比值變化圖………...68
圖5.20 二仁溪水樣234U/238U與鈾濃度作圖………………………69
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