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研究生:曾樺玲
研究生(外文):Hua-Ling Tseng
論文名稱:合金鋼與高溫陶瓷間界面熱傳行為研究
論文名稱(外文):The Interfacial Heat Transfer Behavior between High Temperature Alloys and Ceramic
指導教授:黃文星黃文星引用關係
指導教授(外文):Weng-Sing Hwang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:材料科學及工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:合金鋼界面熱傳澆鑄界面熱傳係數
外文關鍵詞:interfacial heat transfer coefficientscastingalloysinterfacial heat transfer
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中文摘要
本研究的主要目的是探討並量測鑄造過程中,因為合金的凝固收縮而產生的界面間隙及此間隙所對應的熱傳導係數,此數據對凝固模擬程式而言是一個非常重要的數據。而本研究中,界面熱傳係數的取得是要經由已知的溫度場及其他已知的熱物性質來推得,而其解法稱為Inverse Method。在實驗設計上為了配合Inverse Method的限制,必須建立單方向性一維熱傳的系統。而本研究所針對三種合金鋼,受高溫鑄造的限制,無法將熱傳現象以絕熱材料由三維逼近成一維,必須建構成球形放射熱傳,再將計算式以一維方程式表示。
本研究共進行六組不同的澆鑄實驗,分別是三種合金鋼(INCONEL-600、SKD-61、SKT-4)與兩種模具(陶模與砂模)以球形模具及球形鑄件進行澆注。首先我們利用實驗紀錄在鑄造過程中鑄件及模具溫度的變化,再配合Inverse Method計算合金鋼與模具間的界面熱傳係數,並且比較不同合金鋼與不同的模具間的界面熱傳行為。
本研究結果得知,不論是何種合金鋼或模具的界面熱傳導係數,初始時的界面熱傳係數會先有一高值,爾後急速下降再略升高一點再緩慢下降。而對陶模的界面熱傳導係數約在200W/m2.K到350W/m2.K的範圍,對砂模的界面熱傳導係數則約在40W/m2.K到90W/m2.K的範圍。而合金鋼種類並不會影響界面熱傳導係數的變化,但模具種類對界面熱傳導係數有很大的影響,且陶模較砂模的界面熱傳導係數大。
Abstract
This thesis research is to measure the heat transfer coefficients at the casting/mold interface during solidification and cooling. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient is very important for solidification simulation. The Inverse Method is employed to derive the interfacial heat transfer coefficient by the measured temperature field and other thermal-physical properties.
To comply with the requirement of Inverse Method, a uni-directional heat transfer system must be constructed with the casting alloy and mold. Three casting alloys (Inconel-600, SKD-61, SKT-4) and two mold materials (ceramic and sand mold) are investigated in this study. Due to their high melting points of the casting alloys, ordinary heat insulating materials cannot be used to construct the uni-directional heat transfer system in a rectangular geometry. Therefore, a spherical heat transfer system is constructed to approach the one-dimensional heat transfer status. The governing differential equation and the corresponding equations for Inverse analysis are modified accordingly.
Six different casting experiments are completed. The temperature variation in casting and mold are recorded. The interfacial heat transfer coefficients are calculated by using the Inverse Method. The results of this thesis research show that all the interfacial heat transfer coefficients for different casting alloys and molds have the same tendency. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient first rises to a peak value. It then drops abruptly and subsequently rises again and then levels up. For castings with ceramic molds, the interfacial heat transfer coefficients are in the range between 200W/m2.K and 350W/m2.K. For castings with sand molds, the interfacial heat transfer coefficients are in the range between 40W/m2.K and 90W/m2.K. The variation of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient is not effected by casting alloy but rather by mold materials.
目錄
中文摘要 i
Abstract iv
目錄 vi
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 x
參數表 xi
一、緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2界面熱傳係數與熱傳導係數 2
1.3文獻回顧 3
1.4研究目的與內容 4
二、理論依據 5
2.1由假設的熱物參數計算系統的溫度分佈 5
2.2如何以INVERSE METHOD來修正假設的熱物參數值 9
2.3未來時間的使用 11
2.4潛熱釋放模式的處理 12
2.5初始溫度的預估 13
2.6修正界面熱傳導係數的網格誤差 14
三、研究方法 20
實驗設計 20
四、實驗量測 23
4.1實驗裝置 23
4.2實驗材料 23
4.3實驗步驟 24
五、結果與討論 29
5.1驗證球形設計的準確性 29
5.2溫度量測數據 29
5.3 模具的熱傳導係數之解析結果 30
5.3.1砂模的熱傳導係數 30
5.3.2陶模的熱傳導係數 31
5.4 合金鋼熱傳導係數之解析結果 32
5.5界面熱傳係數之解析結果 32
5.5.1合金鋼-砂模 32
5.5.2合金鋼-陶模 35
5.5.3 不同合金鋼種與不同模具材料之界面熱傳係數比較 36
六、結論 68
七、未來研究方向 69
參考資料 70
附錄 潛熱釋放模式研究 72
理論基礎 72
實驗方法與步驟 75
實驗設備 75
實驗材料 75
實驗步驟 75
結果與討論 76
潛熱釋放量計算檢討 77
參考資料
1.S. Thiem and W. Loser:Steel Res., 1992, vol. 63(7), PP. 291~296
2.S. Thiem, W. Loser, and M. Jurisch:Steel Res., 1993, vol. 64(6), pp. 307~312.
3.J. Issac, G. P. Reddy, G. K. Sharma, “Experimental Investigation Of the Influence of Casting Parameters on the Formation and Distribution Of Air Gap During the Solidification of Castings In Metallic Molds”, AFS Transactions, 1985, pp. 29~34.
4.J.C. Hwang, H.T. Chuang, S.H. Jong, and W.S. Hwang, “Measurement of Heat Transfer Coefficient at Metal/Mold Interface During Casting”, AFS Transaction, 1994, pp. 877~883.
5.H.K. Kim and S.I. Oh, “Evaluation of heat transfer coefficient during heat treatment by inverse analysis”, J. of Materials Processing Technology, 2001, vol. 112, pp. 157~165.
6.S. Das and A. J. Paul, “Determination of Metal-Mold Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficients for Casting Using a Solution Technique for Inverse Problems Based on the Boundary Element Method”, Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VI, 1993, pp. 647~654.
7.R.P. TAVARES, M. ISAC, F.G. HAMEL, and R.I.L. GUTHRIE, ”Instantaneous Interfacial Heat Fluxes during the 4 to 8 m/min Casting of Carbon Steels in a Twin-Roll Casting”, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B, vol. 32B, February 2001, pp. 55~67.
8.J. V. Beck and B. Blackwell, ”INVERSE PROBLEMS”, HANDBOOK OF NUMERICAL HEAT TRANSFER., p787~834.
9.C.H. Su and H.L. Tsai, ”A Direct Method to Include Latent Heat Effect for Modeling Casting Solidification”, AFS Transaction, 1991, pp. 781~789.
10.Lennart ackerud, Ella Krol, Jarmo Tamminen, “Experimental Technique”, Solidification Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys, vol. 1, Wrought Alloys, pp. 63~74.
11.Lennart ackerud, Ella Krol, Jarmo Tamminen, “Experimental Technique”, Solidification Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys, vol. 2, Foundry Alloys, pp. 3~12.
12.鍾尚浩, “鑄造灌模及凝固解析模式之改良及其相關實驗技術之研究發展”, 國立成功大學材料科學及工程研究所博士論文, 中華民國八十一年七月。
13.郭哲豪,”鑄造製程整合性模擬解析系統之開發與應用研究”,國立成功大學材料科學及工程學系博士論文,中華民國九十年七月,pp. 103~105。
14.陳瑞琴,”鋁合金消失模鑄造法灌模過程之流場模擬及界面熱傳係數之量測與其在凝固模擬上之應用”,國立成功大學材料科學及工程研究所碩士論文,中華民國八十七年六月。
15.”Nickel and Nickel Alloys”, Metals Handbook, Vol. 2, TENTH EDITION, p428.
16.”Specialty Steels and Heat-Resistant Alloys”, Metals Handbook, Vol. 1, TENTH EDITION, p757~780.
17.“Physical properties”, CRC-ELSEVCER MATERIALS SELECTOR, VOLUME 1, page182.
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