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研究生:彭拓榮
研究生(外文):To-Jung Peng
論文名稱:鋁鋅系合金共振破壞特性之鋅含量效應探討
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Zn Content on the Vibration Fracture Characteristics of Al-Zn Alloys
指導教授:呂傳盛呂傳盛引用關係陳立輝陳立輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Truan-Sheng LuiLi-Hui Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:材料科學及工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:共振破壞鋁鋅合金
外文關鍵詞:Vibration FractureAl-Zn Alloy
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本研究探討鋅含量與微觀組織對鋁鋅合金系統之機械性質、共振阻泥、共振破壞行為的影響。
將鑄造與擠形試料於室溫、初始應變速率8´10-4s-1條件下,進行拉伸試驗。根據拉伸試驗結果可知,鑄造與擠形試片之變形阻抗與鋅含量之間存在正相關性,且擠形試料之變形阻抗較同成分之鑄造試片高;鑄造試料之總延伸率與均勻延伸率與鋅含量之間存在負相關性,擠形試料以Al-11wt%Zn具有最佳總延伸與均勻延伸率,約為180%左右。拉伸破斷面特徵大多為延性破壞之酒窩狀組織,但Al-16wt%Zn之擠形試料卻以脆性沿晶破壞形式出現。
振動阻尼值的量測結果顯示,鑄造與擠形試片之對數衰減率隨鋅含量之增加而上升。
在共振過程中,試片末端偏移量的變化與振動次數具有相關性,並可畫成D-N曲線。D-N曲線可分成三區:在第一區試片具有加工硬化的現象,偏移量隨振動次數增加而上升;第二區偏移量維持一定,主裂縫在此區傳播;第三區振動台振動頻率以偏離試片之共振頻率,偏移量隨振動次數增加而下降。根據本實驗結果可將D-N曲線定義為三種型態:A型,以第二階段(偏移量平台區)、第三階段(偏移
量衰減區)為主 ; B型,包含第一階段(偏移量增幅區)、第二階段(偏移量平台區)及第三階段(偏移量衰減區) ; C型,主要由第一階段(偏移量增幅區)與第三階段(偏移量衰減區)所構成。
裂縫路徑觀察的結果顯示,鑄態試片裂縫主要以穿晶形式傳播;擠形試片裂縫沿晶界傳播之比率隨鋅含量增加而上升。共振壽命方面的研究顯示,Al-Zn合金之耐振動破壞阻抗主要受到裂紋傳播阻抗的影響,Al-16wt%Zn擠形試片具有最佳共振壽命。
The effects of Zn content and microstructure on the mechanical property, damping capacity, and resonant vibration fracture of Al-Zn alloys were investigated.

The tensile tests for the as-cast and extruded specimens were performed under initial strain rates 8´10-4s-1, and the tensile temperature was R.T. Experimental results indicated that the flow stress of as-cast and extruded specimens had a positive proportion to Zn content, and the flow stress of extruded specimens were higher than as-cast specimens which were the same Zn content. The total elongation and uniform elongation of as-cast specimens had a negative proportion to Zn content. In particular, Al-11wt%Zn alloy of extruded specimens had maximum total elongation and uniform elongation. Most of the tensile fracture surface of all specimens displayed typical dimple patterns, but it was a brittle inter-granular fracture in Al-16wt%Zn of extruded specimens.

Measurements of the logarithmic decrement d for the as-cast and extruded specimens were increased with increasing Zn content.

The deflection amplitude in resonance can be classified into three stages as a function of vibration cycle. In stage I, the deflection amplitude increases with the number of vibration cycles. The hardness of specimen also increases with vibration cycle during this stage. The test specimens possess a distinct plateau stage of maximum deflection amplitude in second stage. In stage III, the frequency of specimen diverges from the resonance condition. The deflection amplitude decreases with increasing vibration cycles. Experimental results indicate the D-N curves can be classified into three types. For A type, the curve is formed by stage II and stage III. For B type, the curve is formed by stage I、stage II and stage III.
For C type, the curve is formed by stage I and stage III.

In the observation of crack paths, for the as-cast specimens, the crack mainly propagates through grains. The proportion of crack which is propagates through grain boundary in extruded specimens was increases with increasing Zn content. In current study, the vibration resistance of Al-Zn alloy is mainly influenced by crack propagation resistance. The resonant vibration life of Al-16wt%Zn of extruded specimens was best.
中文摘要………………………………………………………I
英文摘要………………………………………………………III
總目錄…………………………………………………………V
表目錄…………………………………………………………VIII
圖目錄…………………………………………………………IX
第一章 前言………………………………………………..1
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………..4
2-1 Al-Zn合金之研究概況……………………………..4
2-1-1 Al-Zn合金之顯微組織………………………4
2-1-2 Al-Zn合金之析出行為………………………4
2-2振動特性………………………………………………6
2-2-1振動頻率之變化……………………………..7
2-2-2 振動阻泥…………………………………….8
2-3 D-N曲線之特徵………………………………………9
2- 4裂縫傳播行為………………………………………..10
第三章 實驗方法…………………………………………..15
3-1 試料熔煉……………………………………………..15

V
3-2 試料之擠形條件……………………………………..15
3-3 微觀組織觀察………………………………………..16
3-4 拉伸測試……………………………………………..16
3-5 共振測試……………………………………………..16
3-5-1共振頻率的量測……………………………..17
3-5-2 對數衰減率(d)的量測……………………..17
3-5-3 共振破壞測試……………………………….18
3-5-4 裂縫路徑特徵定量解析…………………….18
第四章 實驗結果…………………………………………...29
4-1 微觀組織觀察………………………………………..29
4-1-1 Al-(7~16)wt%Zn鑄造試料………………….29
4-1-2 Al-(7~16)wt%Zn擠形試料………………….29
4-2拉伸機械性質……………………………………………………………………..30
4-3共振頻率及對數衰減率……………………………...31
4- 4定出力值之共振特性………………………………..32
4-4-1定出力值之D-N曲線……………………….32
4-4-2 裂縫、破斷面之觀察與定量解析………….33
4-5定初始末端偏移量之共振測試特性………………...34

VI
4-5-1 定初始末端偏移量(3mm)之D-N曲線…….34
4-5-2裂縫、破斷面之觀察與定量解析…………..35
第五章 討論………………………………………………..57
5-1 鋅含量及微觀組織對拉伸機械性質之效應………...57
5-2 振動阻泥與材料微觀結構之關係…………………...59
5-3 D-N Curve型態及其影響因素………………………59
5-4 共振壽命……………………………………………...61
第六章 結論………………………………………………..66
第七章 參考文獻……………………………………………..68

VII
表目錄
表3-1 Al-(7~16)wt%Zn的化學組成(wt%)………………………20
表4-1 擠形試料之晶粒徑值(μm)………………………………...37
表4-2 鑄造與擠形試料之對數衰減率(d)………………………..37
表4-3 定出力值(7g)鑄造與擠形試料之裂縫轉折程度…………38
表4-4 定出力值(7g)鑄造與擠形試料之裂縫分歧程度…………38
表4-5 定試片末端偏移量(3mm) 鑄造與擠形試料之裂縫轉折
程度………………………………………………………..39
表4-6 定試片末端偏移量(3mm) 鑄造與擠形試料之裂縫轉折
程度………………………………………………………..39

VIII
圖目錄
圖1-1 鋁鋅合金二元相圖(根據文獻[7]重繪)……………………3
圖2-1 懸臂樑加末端荷重的共振系統(L:懸臂樑長度、E:彈性係
數、 M: 懸臂樑重量、m:末端重物的重量、I:慣性矩)…12
圖2-2 共振狀態下之振幅………………………………………...13
圖2-3 D-N曲線示意圖…………………………………………...14
圖3-1 本研究澆鑄用金屬模尺寸: (a)圓形金屬模 ; (b)Y型金屬
模(mm)……………………………………………………..21
圖3-2 本研究所使用之拉伸試片尺寸(mm)……………………..22
圖3-3 本研究所使用之共振測試裝置(1: 振動台控制器 ; 2:加
速規 ; 3:振動台 ; 4:試片夾具 ; 5:試片 ; 6:位移規及末
端荷重 ; 7:記錄器)………………………………………..23
圖3-4 由低頻掃瞄至高頻試片末端偏移量變化之示意圖……..24
圖3-5 本研究所使用之對數衰減率測試試片尺寸(mm)……….25
圖3-6 對數衰減d (Logarithmic Decrement)的量測圖………….26
圖3-7 本研究所使用之共振試片尺寸(mm)…………………….27
圖3-8 本研究裂縫路徑特徵解析方式之示意圖………………..28
圖4-1 鑄造試料之微觀組織:(a)7Zn-C ; (b)11Zn-C ; (c)16Zn-C..40

IX
圖4-2 擠行試料之微觀組織:(a)7Zn-E ; (b)11Zn-E ; (c)16Zn-E…41
圖4-3 鑄造與擠形試料之拉伸強度變化………………………...42
圖4-4 鑄造與擠形試料之延伸率(UE:均勻延伸率;TE:總延
伸率)……………………………………………………….42
圖4-5 鑄造試料之拉伸破斷面觀察:(a)7Zn-C ; (b)11Zn-C ; (c)
16Zn-C……………………………………………………..43
圖4-6 擠形試料之拉伸破斷面觀察:(a)7Zn-E ; (b)11Zn-E ; (c)
16Zn-E……………………………………………………..44
圖4-7 擠形試料之拉伸次表面觀察:(a)7Zn-E ; (b)11Zn-E ; (c)
16Zn-E…………………………………………………….45
圖4-8 鑄造試片末端偏移量隨頻率變化的關係………………..46
圖4-9 擠形試片末端偏移量隨頻率變化的關係………………..46
圖4-10 定出力值(7g)之鑄造與擠形試料末端偏移量隨振動次
數變化的關係…………………………………………….47
圖4-11 定出力值(7g)之鑄造試料裂縫傳播路徑:(a)7Zn-C ; (b)11Zn-C ; (c)16Zn-C…………………………………...48
圖4-12 定出力值(7g)之擠形試料裂縫傳播路徑:(a)7Zn-E ; (b)
11Zn-E ; (c)16Zn-E………………………………….……49
圖4-13 定出力值(7g)之鑄造試料共振破斷面:(a)7Zn-C ; (b)
11Zn-C; (c)16Zn-C……………………………………….50
圖4-14 定出力值(7g)之鑄造試料共振破斷面:(a)7Zn-E ; (b)
11Zn-E; (c)16Zn-E………………………………………..51
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