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研究生:黃俊凱
研究生(外文):Chun-Kai Huang
論文名稱:噴覆成型、半固態電磁攪拌及鑄造高矽鋁合金磨耗性質之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of wear property of spray-forming,semi-solid electromagnetic stirring and casting hypereutectic Al-Si alloys
指導教授:曹紀元
指導教授(外文):Chi-Yuan Tsao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:材料科學及工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:148
中文關鍵詞:半固態電磁攪拌磨耗噴覆成型鑄造
外文關鍵詞:castingspray-formingsemi-solid electromagnetic stirringwear
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
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  • 下載下載:49
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
  傳統鑄造的高矽鋁金在磨耗性質方面被探討已久,材料參數對磨耗性質的影響,也多所討論。本實驗以藉由噴覆成型技術自行配置不同矽含量之合金,以得到較傳統鑄造高矽鋁合金更細微的結構組織, 同時改變矽含量,已比較不同矽含量對於過共晶高矽鋁合金磨耗性質之影響。同時對不同矽含量之噴覆成型高矽鋁合金施與半固態製程及利用傳統的鑄造製程,製造出另外兩種尺寸範圍的初晶矽顆粒,以探討初晶矽顆粒大小對磨耗性質之影響。
  利用噴覆成型所製造高矽鋁合金初晶矽尺寸為3~5μm,半固態電磁攪拌之高矽鋁合金初晶矽尺寸為30~60μm之間,而鑄造所獲得之初晶矽尺寸為80~ 100μm。
  本磨耗實驗的材料參數為矽含量及初晶矽尺寸,實驗的參數為試片滑移速度及施加的正向力。
  實驗的結果顯示在較低施加應力的狀態下,滑移速度的增加會升高磨耗面溫度,造成材料軟化並提昇adhesion磨耗效應,但同時也會造成鑄鐵磨耗面氧化層的增加導致磨耗的效應不明顯。而磨耗材隨著施加正向力的增加,變形破裂影響磨耗行為增加,磨耗速率增加。至於材料對磨耗性質的影響部分,對Al-18Si合金而言,噴覆成型3~5μm初晶矽材料有較佳的抗磨耗性質,而Al-25Si合金則以半固態製程的40~45μm出晶矽材料所得到的磨耗性質最差。Al-32Si合金則以傳統鑄造製程的90~100μm初晶矽材料所得到的磨耗性質最差。
  The wear properties of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys were investigated in the pass decade. The hypereutectic Al-Si alloys of SFP(spray-forming process) offer fine microstructure. Changing Si content with SFP,we study the effect of Si content in wear property. Then using the semi-solid electromagnetic stirring process and casting process that offer another two primary Si dimension, and we could evaluate primary Si particle effect in wear property.
  In our study, the Si weight percentage and primary Si dimension were material parameter; load and speed were testing parameter.
  For the result, for lower load the wear rate were not elevated with speed increasing due to the temperature increased at higher speed then soft Al-Si alloys, that made adhesion wear increase but temperature also made IDE(iron) wear surface oxidized rate increased, that made adhesion wear decreased. And wear rate increasing with load increasing.
  The Si content and the primary Si increasing the wear rate increasing. Si content increasing due to brittle crack and testing Al-Si alloys could not bear severe deformation. Primary Si particle dimension increasing due to crack surround Si that wear loss by delaminaiton, wear rate increasing. But the result was abrupted at Al-25Si with 80~90μm primary Si particle, the reason for the material is the subsurface mixed layer have high density Si distribution.
中文摘要 Ⅲ
英文摘要 Ⅳ
總目錄 Ⅴ
表目錄 Ⅶ
圖目錄 Ⅷ

第一章 序論 1
  1-1前言 1
  1-2基礎理論 3
    1-2-1噴覆成型製程 3
    1-2-2半固態矽顆粒粗化製程 3
    1-2-3磨耗理論 5

第二章 實驗的方法與步驟 9
  2-1實驗目的 9
  2-1實驗材料及設備 10
  2-3噴覆成型製程 12
  2-4擠形製程 12
  2-5半固態矽顆粒粗化製程 13
  2-6半固態電磁攪拌製程 14
  2-7傳統鑄造製程 14
  2-8材料熱壓步驟 14
  2-9磨耗試驗 15
  2-10硬度值量測 16

第三章 結果與討論 17
  3-1噴覆成型製程參數 17
  3-2半固態矽顆粒粗化實驗 18
  3-3半固態粗化處理合併熱壓處理 20
  3-4半固態電磁攪拌 22
  3-5傳統鑄造高矽鋁合金 23
  3-6微細初晶矽3-5μm(噴覆成型) 高矽鋁合金磨耗性質探討 23
    3-6-1滑移速度對磨耗速率的影響 23
    3-6-2正向力(Load) 對磨耗速率的影響 25
    3-6-3不同矽含量對磨耗速率的影響 27
    3-6-4鑄鐵對手材磨耗觀察 29
  3-7初晶矽30-60μm(半固態電磁攪拌) 高矽鋁合金磨耗性質探討 30
    3-7-1滑移速度對磨耗速率的影響 30
    3-7-2正向力(Load) 對磨耗速率的影響 31
    3-7-3不同矽含量對磨耗速率的影響 33
    3-7-4鑄鐵對手材磨耗觀察 35
  3-8初晶矽80-100μm(半固態電磁攪拌) 高矽鋁合金磨耗性質探討 35
    3-8-1滑移速度對磨耗速率的影響 35
    3-8-2正向力(Load) 對磨耗速率的影響 36
    3-8-3不同矽含量對磨耗速率的影響 37
    3-8-4鑄鐵對手材磨耗觀察 39
  3-9不同初晶矽顆粒尺寸磨耗速率之比較 40

第四章 結論 45

參考文獻 48
表 52
圖 60

  


表目錄
Table 1 Compositions of the raw materials 52
Table 2 Process parameters for extrusion 52
Table 3 Extrusion temperature for various hypereutectic Al-Si alloys 52
Table 4 The variety times of semisolid soaking 53
Table 5 Semi-solid treatment times of variety composition 53
Table6 The compositions of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy of spray forming process
and Casting process 53
Table 7 Compositions of the IDE 53
Table 8 Wear experiment parameters for present and other studies Microhardness of variety wear materials 54
Table 9 The hypereutectic Al-Si alloys density and volume fraction percentage 54
Table 10 Microhardness of variety wear materials 55
Table 11The parameters of spray forming process 55
Table 12The constant of growth kinetic D=Do+kt1/n 55
Table 13 The composition of semi-solid specimens at the effect of macro segregate 56
Table 14 Present experimental parameter about material 56
Table 15 The bulk hardness of (a) spray-forming hypereutectic Al-Si alloy (b) semi-solid hypereutectic Al-Si alloy (c) casting hypereutectic Al-Si alloy 57
Table 16 The wear surface hardness of (a)spray-forming hypereutectic Al-Si alloy (b)semi-solid hypereutectic Al-Si alloy (c) casting hypereutectic Al-Si alloy 58
Table 17 The Si Particle refine size in worn subsurface of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys 59
Table 18 summary of n at difference condition 59


圖目錄
Fig.1 Schematic diagram of droplet deposition onto substrate during spray forming 60
Fig.2 The variation of the coefficient of frictionμ, with normal load ,W, for the unlubricated sliding of steel on Al in air 60
Fig.3 The variation of the coefficient of friction, μ, with apparent area of contact for wooden silders on an unlubricated steel surface 61
Fig.4 Schematic diagram illustrating the principles behind the coulomb for sliding friction 61
Fig.5 An experiment to illustrate adhesion between metal 62
Fig.6 Model for the deformation component of friction 62
Fig.7 Stresses acting on an element within an idealized asperity pressed against a counterfaceFig.8 The variation of coefficient of friction 63
Fig.8 The variation of coefficient of friction, μ.with the ratio between the shear strength of the interface and that of the bulk material 63
Fig.9 Diagram illustrating one way by which detachment of a fragment of material might result from plastic deformation of an asperity tip 64
Fig.10 Formation of a transfer particle by asperity rupture and aggregation 65
Fig.11 Schematic diagram showing how the severity of plastic deformation is distributed beneath a worn metal surface in the severe wear regime 66
Fig.12 Schematic diagram of Spray Forming Process 66
Fig.13 The instruments of semi-solid process in the furnace of Shimaduz machine 67
Fig.14 Schematic diagram of retrieving specimen from the hot pressure mold 68
Fig.15 Schematic diagram of (a) upper wear specimens and holder and (b) lower wear specimens and holder on pin-on disc wear mold 69
Fig.16 Schematic diagram of pin-on-disc wear testing 70
Fig.17 Metal flow rate of Al-Si alloys metal flow rate in spray-forming process 71
Fig.18 (a) The billet of Al-18Si of spray forming (b)(c)(d) is the metallograph 71
Fig.19 (a) The billet of Al-25Si of spray forming(b)(c) (d)is the metallograph 72
Fig.20 (a) The billet of Al-32Si of spray forming (b)(c) (d) is the metallograph 73
Fig.21 The metallograph of(a)(b)(c)represent sfp Al-18Si billet outer, middle and center position respectively and (d)(e)(f) represent sfp Al-25Si billet outer, middle and center position respectively and(g)(h)(i) represent sfp Al-18Si billet outer, middle and center position respectively 74
Fig.22 Al-18Si alloy 600℃ semi-solid coarsening for (a) 600s (b) 1200s (c) 1800s (d)2400s (e) 3000s (f) 3600s (g) 5400s (h) 7200s 75
Fig.23 Al-25Si alloy 600℃ semi-solid coarsening for (a) 600s (b) 1200s (c) 1800s(d) 2400s (e) 3000s (f) 3600s (g) 5400s (h) 7200s 75
Fig.24 Al-32Si alloys 600℃ semi-solid coarsening for (a) 600s (b) 1200s (c) 1800s .(d) 2400s (e) 3000s (f) 3600s (g) 5400s (h) 7200s 76

Fig .25 Primary Si particle size vs. semi-solid coarsening time of various spray-formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys 77
Fig.26 Metallograph of Al-32Si alloy (a)semi-solid coarsening without hot compression (b)semi-solid coarsening with hot compression 78
Fig.27 Metallograph ofAl-18Si alloys semi-solid coarsening for 36min followed by hot compression (a) bottom of specimen (b)middle of specimen(c)top of specimens 78
Fig.28 Metallograph ofAl-18Si alloys semi-solid coarsening for 90min followed by hot compression (a) bottom of specimen (b) middle of specimen(c) top of specimens 78
Fig.29 Metallograph ofAl-25Si alloys semi-solid coarsening for 22min followed by hot compression (a) bottom of specimen (b)middle of specimen( c)top of specimens 79
Fig.30 Metallograph ofAl-25Si alloys semi-solid coarsening for 74min followed by hot compression (a) bottom of specimen (b)middle of specimen(c)top of specimens 79
Fig.31 Metallograph ofAl-32Si alloys semi-solid coarsening for 19min followed by hot compression (a) bottom of specimen (b)middle of specimen(c)top of specimens 79
Fig.32 Metallograph ofAl-32Si alloys semi-solid coarsening for 60min followed by hot compression (a) bottom of specimen (b) middle of specimen(c)top of specimens 79
Fig.33 Electronic-magnetic stirring hypereutectic Al-Si alloys coarsening time vs. particle size (μm) 80
Fig.34 Metallograph of electromagnetic stirred (a)Al-18Si alloy 36mins(b)Al-25Si alloy 22mins (c)Al-32Si alloy 19min(d)Al-18Si alloy 90mins (e)Al-25Si alloy 74mins (f)Al-32Si alloy 60 min 80
Fig.35 the relationship of cast Al-xSi vs. particle size 81
Fig.36 the Metallograph of cast hypereutectic Al-Si alloys 81
Fig.37 (a)(b)(c) Wear rate vs. speed of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particles for various Si contents (d)(e)(f) wear rate vs. load of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particles for various Si contents 82
Fig.38 Wear rate vs. pressure of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particles for various speed 83
Fig.39 (a)(b)(c) Wear rate vs. speed of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with 30-60μm primary Si particles for various Si contents (d)(e)(f) wear rate vs. pressure of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with 30-60μm primary Si particles for various Si contents 84
Fig.40 Wear rate vs. pressure of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with 30-60μm primary Si particles for various speed 85
Fig.41 (a)(b)(c) wear rate vs. speed of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with 80-100μm primary Si particles for various Si contents (d)(e)(f) wear rate vs. speed of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with 80-100μm primary Si particles for various Si contents 86
Fig.42 wear rate vs. speed of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with 80-100μm primary Si particles for various speed 87
Fig.43 Variation in (a) strength and (b) elongation with silicon content: 88
Fig.44 The mechanism of adhesion cutting plough 88
Fig.45 Schematic diagram of temperature distribution (isotherms) around sliding contacts 88
Fig.46 (a) Schematic representation of asperity interaction (b) orientation and directionality of roof tile laminates at the wear interface 89
Fig.47 Variation of states of stress in the roll gap that may lead to edge cracking 89
Fig.48 Schematic representation the model of Si particle refined 90
Fig.49 Schematic of Model of two body abrasive 90
Fig.50 Worn surface morphologies fo Al-18Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 1.04Mpa and wear speed of (a) 1.47m/s(b) 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 90
Fig.51 Worn surface morphologies of Al-18Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and wear speed of (a)0.63m/s, and(b)1.47m/s (c)2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 91
Fig.52 Worn surface morphologies of Al-25Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and wear speed of (a) 0.63m/s(b) 1.47m/s (c)2.1m/s at constant distance1.008km 91
Fig.53 Worn surface morphologies of Al-32Si alloys with 3-5μmprimary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and wear speed of (a) 0.63m/s(b) 1.47m/s(c)2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 92
Fig.54 Worn surface morphologies of Al-18Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and wear speed of 0.63m/s at constant distance 1.008km 93
Fig.55 Worn surface morphologies of Al-25Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and wear speed of (a) 0.63m/s(b) 1.47m/s at constant distance 1.008km 93
Fig.56 Worn surface morphologies fo Al-32Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and wear speed of (a) 1.47m/s(b) 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 93
Fig.57 Worn surface morphologies of Al-18Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 1.04Mpa and wear speed of (a) 0.63m/s(b) 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 94
Fig.58 Worn surface morphologies of Al-25Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 1.04Mpa and wear speed of 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 94
Fig.59 Worn surface morphologies of Al-32Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 1.04Mpa and wear speed of 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 94
Fig.60 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-18Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and wear speed of 0.63m/s at constant distance 1.008km 95
Fig.61 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-18Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.57Mpa and wear speed of (a) 0.63m/s and (b)1.47m/s at constant distance 1.008km 95
Fig.62 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-18Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 1.04Mpa and wear speed of (a) 0.63m/s and (b) 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 95
Fig.63 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-25Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.17Mpa and wear speed of (a) speed0.63m/s(b) 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 96
Fig.64 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-25Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.57Mpa and wear speed of (a) 0.63m/s and(b) 1.47m/s 96
Fig.65 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-25Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 1.04Mpa and wear speed of (a) 0.63m/s and (b) 1.47m/s 97
Fig.66 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-32Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.17Mpa and wear speed (a)(b) 1.47m/s 97
Fig.67 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-32Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.57Mpa and wear speed of 2.1m/s and (b) the magnification of (a) 97
Fig.68 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-32Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 1.04Mpa and wear speed of (a) 1.47m/s and(b) 2.1m/s 98
Fig.69 Morphologies of wear debris of Al-18Si with 3-5μmprimary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.104Mpa (a) speed0.63m/s(b) speed2.1m/s 98
Fig.70 Morphologies of wear debris of Al-18Si with 3-5μmprimary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.104Mpa and speed of1.47m/s 99
Fig.71 Morphologies of wear debris of Al-25Si with 3-5μm primary Si particle for (a)wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and speed of 1.47m/s (b)wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and speed of 2.1 m/s 99
Fig.72 Morphologies of wear debris of Al-32Si with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of (a)(b) 0.572Mpa and speed of 1.47m/s(c)(d) 1.04Mpa and speed2.1m/s 100
Fig.73 Worn surface morphologies of FDC wear with Al-18Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.104Mpa and speed of 0.63m/s(b) (C)is the magnification of (a) at constant distance 1.008km 100
Fig.74 Worn surface morphologies of FDC wear with Al-18Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of( a) 0.104Mpa and speed of2.1m/s(b) 1.04Mpa and speed of1.47m/s at constant distance 1.008km 101
Fig.75 Subsurface wear affected zone of FDC wear with Al-32Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for pressure of 1.04Mpa and wear speed of (a)The line scan of Al element pressure 0.17Mpa and speed0.63m/s 101
Fig.76 Subsurface wear affected zone of FDC wear with Al-32Si alloys with 3-5μm primary Si particle for pressure of 1.04Mpa and wear speed of 1.47m/s 102
Fig.77 Worn surface morphologies of Al-18Si alloys with 30-35μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.867Mpa and wear speed of (a) 1.47m/s(b) 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 102
Fig.78 Worn surface morphologies of Al-Si alloys with 30-60μm primary Si particle 103
Fig.79 Worn surface morphologies of Al-18Si alloys with 30-35μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of (a) 0.572Mpa and speed of 1.47m/s for pressure (b) 0.867 Mpa and speed 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 103
Fig.80 Worn surface morphologies of Al-25Si alloys with 40-45μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and wear speed of (a) 0.63m/s(b) 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 104
Fig.81 Worn surface morphologies of Al-25Si alloys with 40-45μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.867Mpa and speed of (a)0.63m/s and(b)2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 104
Fig.82 Worn surface morphologies of Al-32Si alloys with 55-60μm primary Si particle for (a)wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and speed of 1.47m/s for (b) wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and speed of 1.47m/sat constant distance 1.008km 104
Fig.83 Worn surface morphologies of Al-32Si alloys with 55-60μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.867Mpa and speed of (a)1.47m/s and (b)2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 105
Fig.84Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-18Si alloys with 30-35μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and wear speed of (a)0.63m/s and(b)1.47m/s and wear pressure of 0.867Mpa and wear speed of (c)0.63m/s and (d)2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 106
Fig.85 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-25Si alloys with 40-45μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and wear speed of (a)0.63m/s and (b) 2.1m/s and for wear pressure of 0.867Mpa and wear speed of (c)0.63m/s and (d)1.47m/s at constant distance 1.008km 107
Fig.86 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-32Si alloys with 55-60μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and wear speed of (a) 0.63m/s and (b) 2.1m/s and for wear pressure of 0.867Mpa and wear speed of (c) (d) 0.63m/s and 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 108
Fig.87 Morphologies of wear debris of Al-18Si with 30-35μm primary Si particle for (a) wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and speed of 0.63m/s for (b)(c) wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and speed of 0.63m/s for (c)wear pressure of 0.867Mpa and speed of 1.47m/s 109
Fig.88 Morphologies of wear debris of Al-25Si with 40-45μm primary Si particle for (a)wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and speed of 1.47m/s for (b) wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and speed of 0.63m/s for (c)wear pressure of 0.867Mpa and speed of 2.1m/s 110
Fig.89 Morphologies of wear debris of Al-32Si with 55-60μm primary Si particle for (a) wear pressure of 0.173Mpa and speed of 1.47m/s for (b) wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and speed of 1.47m/s for (c)(d )wear pressure of 0.867Mpa and speed of 2.1m/s 111
Fig.90 Worn surface morphologies of FDC wear with Al-18Si alloys with 35-40μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of( a) 0.173Mpa and speed of0.63m/s(b) 0.867Mpa and speed of2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 111
Fig.91 Worn surface morphologies of FDC wear with Al-25Si alloys with 45-50μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of( a) 0.172Mpa and speed of 1.47m/s(b) 0.867Mpa and speed of2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 112
Fig.92 Worn surface morphologies of FDC wear with Al-32Si alloys with 55-60μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of( a) 0.172Mpa and speed of0.63m/s(b) 0.867Mpa and speed of2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 112
Fig.93 Subsurface wear affected zone of FDC wear with Al-18Si alloys with 35-40μm primary Si particle for(a) pressure of0.172Mpa and wear speed of 0.63m/s for(b)pressure 0.867Mpa and speed2.1m/s 112
Fig.94 Subsurface wear affected zone of FDC wear with Al-25Si alloys with 40-45μm primary Si particle for(a) pressure of0.172Mpa and wear speed of 1.47m/s for(b)pressure 0.867Mpa and speed2.1m/s 113
Fig.95 Worn surface morphologies of Al-18Si alloys with 80-85μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.867Mpa and speed of 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 113
Fig.96 Worn surface morphologies of Al-18Si alloys with 80-85μmprimary Si particle for (a) wear pressure of 0.172Mpa and speed of 0.63m/s for (b) pressure of 0.572 Mpa and speed of 2.1m/s and for pressure of 0.867 Mpa and speed of (c)0.63m/s and (d) 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 114
Fig.97 Worn surface morphologies of Al-25Si alloys with 80-85μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of 0.572Mpa and speed of (a)0.63m/s (b)1.47m/s for pressure of 0.867 Mpa and speed of(c)0.63m/s and (d)2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 115
Fig.98 Worn surface morphologies of Al-32Si alloys with 90-100μm primary Si particle for wear pressure of (a)0.572Mpa and speed of 1.47m/s for pressure(b) 0.867 Mpa and speed 2.1m/s at constant distance 1.008km 116
Fig.99 Figure.99 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-18Si alloys with 80-100μm primary Si particle 117
Fig.100 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-25Si alloys with 80-100μm primary Si particle 118
Fig.101 Subsurface wear affected zone of Al-32Si alloys with 80-100μm primary Si particle 119
Fig.102 Morphologies of wear debris of Al-18Si with 80-85μm primary Si particle 120
Fig.103 Morphologies of wear debris of Al-25Si with 80-85μm primary Si particle 121
Fig.104 Morphologies of wear debris of Al-32Si with 90-100μm primary Si particle 122
Fig.105 Worn surface morphologies of Al-25Si alloys 123
Fig.106 The mapping of iron surface which wear with cast Al-18Si at 0.63m/s 0.173Mpa(b)Al element (c )Fe element(d)Si element 124
Fig.107 Metallograph of wear surface of iron which wear with various Si content 125
Fig.108 Subsurface wear affected zone of IDE wear with Al-18Si alloys with 80-85 μm primary Si particle for(a) pressure of0.173Mpa and wear speed of 0.63m/s for (b)pressure 0.867Mpa and speed2.1m/s 125
Fig.109 Subsurface wear affected zone of IDE wear with Al-25Si alloys with 80-85μm primary Si particle for(a) pressure of0.173Mpa and wear speed of 0.63m/s for(b)pressure 0.867Mpa and speed2.1m/s 126
Fig.110 Subsurface wear affected zone of IDE wear with Al-32Si alloys with 90-100μm primary Si particle for(a) pressure of0.173Mpa and wear speed of 0.63m/s for(b)pressure 0.867Mpa and speed2.1m/s 126
Fig.111 The relationship of wear rate vs. pressure about Al-18Si alloys in three different process 127
Fig.112 The relationship of wear rate vs. pressure about Al-25Si alloys in three different process 128
Fig.113 The relationship of wear rate vs. pressure about Al-32Si alloys in three different process 129
Fig.114 The relationship of wear rate vs. speed about Al-18Si alloys in three different process 130
Fig.115 The relationship of wear rate vs. speed about Al-25Si alloys in three different process 131
Fig.116 The relationship of wear rate vs. speed about Al-32Si alloys in three different process 132
Fig.117.The friction coefficient and ECR of Al-Si alloys with 3~5μm primary Si particle wear for pressure of 0.63Mpa 133
Fig118. Diagram of relationship of primary Si size, Si volume fraction and wear at 0.173Mpa 134
Fig.119 Diagram of relationship of primary Si size, Si volume fraction and wear at 0.572Mpa 135
Fig.120 Diagram of relationship of primary Si size, Si volume fraction and wear at 1.04 Mpa for 3~5μm Si particle and 0.867Mpa for other particle size 136
Fig.121 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear surface at pressure of 0.173Mpa 137
Fig.122 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear subsurface at pressure of 0.173Mpa 138
Fig.123 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear pin at pressure of 0.173Mpa 139
Fig.124 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear debirs at pressure of 0.173Mpa 140
Fig.125 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear surface at pressure of 0.572Mpa 141
Fig.126 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear subsurface at pressure of 0.572Mpa 142
Fig.127 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear pin at pressure of 0.572Mpa 143
Fig.128 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear debirs at pressure of 0.572Mpa 144
Fig.129 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear surface at pressure of 1.04Mpa for 3~5μm Si particle and pressure of 0.867Mpa for others 145
Fig.130 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear subsurface at pressure of 1.04Mpa for 3~5μm Si particle and pressure of 0.867Mpa for others 146
Fig.131 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear pin at pressure of 1.04Mpa for 3~5μm Si particle and pressure of 0.867Mpa 147
Fig.132 The morphology of Al –Si alloys wear debris at pressure of 1.04Mpa for 3~5μm Si particle and pressure of 0.867Mpa for others 148
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