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研究生:林子平
研究生(外文):Tzu-Ping Lin
論文名稱:都市水循環之研究─地表不透水率之調查及逕流量實測解析
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Urban Water Cycle─The Investigation on the Percentage of Imperviousness and the Experimental Analysis of Surface Runoff
指導教授:林憲德林憲德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsien-Te Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:建築學系碩博士班
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:建築學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:環境保護都市水循環保水地表逕流不透水率綠建築
外文關鍵詞:environmental protectiongreen buildingurban water cyclepercentage of imperviousnesssurface runoffwater storage of soil in building site
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  • 被引用被引用:66
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都市化的過程使得地表的透水及涵養水的能力降低,不僅造成了都市洪水的發生概率,同時,也導致都市的高溫化,並且對生態環境造成了莫大的衝擊。本研究針對台灣的都會區,以現況調查及實測解析的方式,依其地表的不透水狀況及影響探討都市地表水循環之特性。
本研究以首先以台南市、台北市為例,依據土地使用分區及公共設施用地匯整為九種分區,再利用抽樣的方式對台南市181個及台北市335個基地進行不透水表面率的調查與分析。台南市及台北市各類分區之平均不透水表面率為:住宅區86%、84%,商業區均為100%,工業區92%、90%,公園綠地36%、19%,學校68%、60%,機關用地91%、78%,其他公共設施用地81%、87%,結果較國內過去預估值偏高許多。由相關性分析的結果看來,住宅區、工業區、學校等之建蔽率對於其不透水表面率均有顯著的影響力(p<0.05)。台南市及台北市均約有50%是人為開發區,其它的一半則為自然土地(如農業區、保護區、鹽田等),因此,其都市平均不透水表面率均低於50%,各為47%及36%。然而,若僅針對都市人為開發區評估,顯然其值均高出許多,各為84%及79%,可見台南市及台北市在都市人為開發的區域中透水性能之惡劣現狀。
本研究接著以台南市虎尾寮地區為例,進行實地逕流實測。經9場有效降雨的資料得到本地區之平均逕流係數為0.405,配合溫氏先前對於都市地區逕流實測的成果,得到「不透水表面率」與逕流係數的相關性為0.87,顯見不透水表面率愈高,其地表逕流量會愈大。同時,綜合調查及實測的結果,建立都市水循環的評估模式,以經驗公法以暴雨逕流管理模式(SWMM)兩種方法進行地表逕流量的評估。經驗公式乃是參照英國水利局Wallingford Procedure的方法來求得都市逕流的迴歸式,同時並提供了各種土地使用分區下不透水表面率(IMP)的評估方式,是一個經過簡化而容易計算的方法。SWMM模式解析模擬則需要較多的參數資料輸入,然而可以完全評估都市中逕流、入滲、蒸發、截留的總量。此兩種方法可以視原始資料的充足與否予以選擇採用,以達到評估都市水循環的目的。
本研究最後以自行研擬的基地保水指標,以基地開發前及開發後的地表條件,來針對基地土壤所能涵養的水量提供一個科學量化的簡易評估法。並依據保水的原理逐一對於各項保水方法提出完整的保水指標公式。本文中的指標公式及數據,目前己成為我國綠建築評估體係中基地保水指標的評估基礎。
The urban environment nowadays is consisted of impermeable materials. This high percentage of impervious area (Imp) not only causes the phenomenon of urban runoff, but also brings about high temperature in urban and destroys the urban ecology.
This research builds up an investigation method by sampling from different zonings of Taipei and Tainan and tries to use the Imp to evaluate the current Performance of Soil Water Retention. The results conducted by the investigation shows that the Imp of each zonings in are, 86%, 84% for residential area, 100% for commercial area, 92%, 90% for industrial area, 36%, 19% for park area, 68%, 60% for educational facilities area and 91%, 78% for government organization area. The values are much lower than the data listed in pervious documents in Taiwan and also lower than some parts in Japanese city that are equally developed as Taipei and Tainan.
To realize the relation between the “index of soil water retention in building site”, “percentage of impervious area (Imp)” and runoff phenomena in urban area, we take Huweiliao, a part of Tainan city, for example to proceed the of urbane runoff experiment. During 9 rain events from the experiment, the coefficient of runoff is 0.405 after calculation. Dealing with the previous data experimented by Wen, the relation between Imp and coefficient of runoff is 0.87, and the relation between “index of soil water retention in building site” and coefficient of runoff is 0.88, higher than Imp (P<0.05). Further more, we apply the result in a developed residential area, we find that if the previously development higher than the standard of “index of soil water retention in building site”, runoff volume could reduce about 21.3%.
So the government develop the assessment of soil water retention in building site to be one of the assessment of green building, using infiltration, storage, retention and landscape engineering to increase the capability of water storage of soil in building site. This research prove that the “index of soil water retention in building site” can help to reduce the runoff volume in urban area, and it could also provide the government to control the Imp in the city by law.
第一章緒論1
1-1 前言1
1-2 研究目的3
1-3 文獻回顧4
1-4 論文架構7
第二章都市地表不透水率調查9
2-1 前言9
2-2 調查方法10
2-2-1 調查母體及樣本個數的選定10
2-2-2 抽樣方法12
2-2-3 調查項目14
2-2-4 不透水表面率之認定與計算方式16
2-3 調查結果與解析16
2-3-1 變數定義與統計方式說明16
2-3-2 住宅區不透水率解析18
2-3-3 商業區不透水率解析20
2-3-4 工業區不透水率解析21
2-3-5 公園綠地不透水率解析23
2-3-6 學校不透水率解析25
2-3-7 機關用地不透水率解析26
2-3-8 其他公共設施用地不透水率解析28
2-3-9 台南市整體透水性能之評估29
2-4 國內外都市透水性能比較31
2-5 小結34
第三章都市地表逕流量實測解析35
3-1 前言35
3-2 實測地點36
3-3 量測方法37
3-4 逕流係數的實測方法與原理39
3-5 獨立降雨事件42
3-5-1 臨界延時之文獻回顧43
3-5-2 台南市虎尾寮地區之臨界延時決定44
3-6 各雨場實測成果45
3-6-1 台南市虎尾寮地區降雨資料45
3-7 台南市虎尾寮地區之逕流係數值47
3-8 雨場資料相關性分析49
第四章都市水循環模型53
4-1 前言53
4-2 都市水循環解析方法檢討分析54
4-2-1 入滲量評估模式檢討55
4-2-2 逕流量評估模式檢討57
4-2-3 都市逕流電腦模擬模式檢討60
4-2-4 解析方法檢討成果62
4-3 經驗公式法63
4-3-1 實測案例簡介63
4-3-2 迴歸分析66
4-3-3 變數範圍67
4-3-4 應用實例68
4-4 SWMM水文模擬69
4-4-1 輸入參數及輸出成果69
4-4-2 模型率定與驗證71
4-4-3 敏感度分析74
4-4-4 運用SWMM評估都市水循環75
4-5 水循環模型運用實例77
4-5-1 案例簡介77
4-5-2 以SWMM模型解析77
4-5-3 以經驗公式法解析79
4-6 小結79
第五章基地保水性能評估81
5-1 前言81
5-2 基地保水性能定義與方法81
5-3 基地保水指標之擬定82
5-3-1 基地保水指標之評估原理82
5-3-2 保水量之評估原理84
5-4 基地保水方法之說明及公式推估88
5-4-1 直接滲透設計公式推估88
5-4-2 貯留滲透設計公式推估93
5-5 基地保水計算案例96
5-6 小結98
第六章結論與建議99
6-1 結論100
6-2 建議101
參考文獻103
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