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研究生:林達志
研究生(外文):Ta-Zhi Lin
論文名稱:國民中小學生態環境基礎研究─綠化、基地保水、用水、用電之解析
論文名稱(外文):A Basic Study on the Ecological Environment of Elementary and Junior High Schools---analysis on greening work, the ground water-holding capacity, water consumption and electricity consumption
指導教授:黃漢泉黃漢泉引用關係林憲德林憲德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Han-Quan HuangXian-De Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:建築學系專班
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:建築學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:國民中小學綠建築用水用電綠化基地保水
外文關鍵詞:electricity consumptionwater consumptiongreening workthe ground water-holding capacitygreen buildingelementary and junior high schools
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  • 被引用被引用:33
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國民中小學學校建築由於數量眾多且具有較寬廣的基地更有學生生態教育的意義,是推廣綠建築設計的最佳對象。但過去我們對學校有關綠建築方面的資料卻極度匱乏,無法估量現有國民中小學學校綠建築水準是否合於現行之綠建築評估標準。因此國民中小學生態環境基礎調查是我國推動綠建築刻不容緩的工作。
為瞭解國民中小學綠化、基地保水、用水及用電之水準,本研究對台灣地區52所國民中小學進行實地調查,並取得台南市35所國小及17所國中之用水、用電資料,經統計分析以掌握現況水準,並尋找影響現況的關鍵因子,藉此作為解析國民中小學學校建築與其他類建築於綠化及基地保水評估基準的差異性的依據,最後提出改善對策以供國民中小學興建之參考。
由調查發現國民小學與國民中學之校地面積與學生人數相關性判定係數R2僅為0.1561及0.0155,顯示目前的國民中小學不會因校地面積大小作為招生數量的依據,導致校園密度懸殊不齊,間接影響到各學校綠化及基地保水之成效,為確保學生在校園內有足夠之活動空間,建議國民中小學綠化及基地保水指標將運動場因素納入考慮。即國民中小學類建築綠化指標計算基地面積需應扣除運動場面積且基準值計算之建蔽率採固定值50%,而基地保水指標基準值採固定值0.5。對於國民中小學用水方面經學生人數、校地面積及游泳池有無等三項變數對用水度數進行複迴歸分析所得國民小學及國民中學相關性判定係數R2為0.638及0.712,顯示學生人數、校地面積及游泳池對學校用水度數有密切之關係。而於國民小學與國民中學用電度數與學生人數及班級數之相關性判定係數R2分別為0.808、0.916及0.798、0.928,顯示學生人數及班級數與學校用電度數有密切之關係,但考慮國民中小學以班級群體活動,而小規模學校每班人數未達每班標準人數,因此以班級數作為推估用電量之變數似乎較為適合。另空調使用頻繁學校或使用中央空調學校之學校用電最高月份與用電最低月份用電度數差達每月平均用電度數之六成以上,顯示空調用電亦是影響國民中小學用電量重要之因子。
最後依影響現況之關鍵因子如:對於綠化水準之綠化面積、植栽種類及生態綠化;對於基地保水水準之透水鋪面比例、人工地盤面花園面積及運動場之貯留設計;對於用水水準之學生人數(學生用水)、校地面積(澆灌用水)及游泳池用水及對於用電水準之班級用電(照明、通風)及減輕空調負荷提出改善對策建議。
Elementary and junior high schools are the best targets for promoting the green building design, seeing that their constructions are legion and school grounds are broad enough for student ecological education. However, data regarding school green building in the past was scant to make it unable to evaluate if the green building levels at current elementary and junior high schools comply with the standards of modern green building. Therefore, it is an important task to do the basic ecological environment surveys on those elementary and junior high schools for the propagation of green building in Taiwan.
To understand greening work, the ground water-holding capacity, water consumption and electricity consumption at elementary and junior high schools, the study carried out a hands-on research on 52 elementary and junior high schools in Taiwan, and the utilizing water and electricity consumption data obtained from 35 elementary schools and 17 junior schools in Tainan City for analyzing current consumption levels and critical factors, which greatly influence current conditions. The study applies those critical factors as bases for analyzing the evaluation differences of greening and the ground water-holding capacity between elementary and junior high schools and other kinds of constructions, and proposes follow-up antidotes as the references to future construction works of elementary and junior high schools.
The results of our survey show that correlative coefficients of determination R2 of the area of school ground and the number of students of elementary/junior high schools are 0.1561 and 0.0155, respectively. It illustrates that general elementary and junior high schools do not enroll students based on their school ground sizes to lead to disparity in student densities among those schools and further affect the effect of greening work and the ground water-holding capacity of each school. To assure that those schools provide with sufficient playgrounds for student activities, the study suggests that the playground factor of a elementary or a junior high school should be considered as an calculation indicator for its greening work and the ground water-holding capacity. That is, the building greening indicator of a elementary or a junior high school should be calculated using the area of the school ground to deduct the area of playground; the standard value of the building coverage rate to be a fixed 50%; the standard value of the ground water-holding capacity to be a fixed 0.5. The study, in the aspect of water consumption of elementary and junior high schools, utilizes three variables, which are the number of students, the area of school ground and the possession of swimming pool, for carrying out multiple-regression analysis on the number of consumed water units and coming out correlative coefficients of determination R2 of elementary schools and the junior high schools are 0.638 and 0.712, respectively; the results show that there is a close relationship among the number of students, the area of school ground and the possession of swimming pool to the number of consumed water units. As for the aspect of electricity consumption of elementary and junior high schools, the study comes out correlative coefficients of determination R2 of the number of consumed electricity units and the number of students at elementary schools and at junior high schools are 0.808 and 0.916, respectively; whereas correlative coefficients of determination R2 of the number of consumed electricity units and the number of classes at elementary schools and at junior high schools are 0.798 and 0.928, respectively. The results show that there is a close relationship between the number of students and the number of classes to the number of consumed electricity units. However, considering that activities at both elementary schools and the junior high schools are carried out with team play and small-scale schools usually fail to reach the standard number of students in each class, it is appropriate for applying the number of classes to be the indicator for estimating the variable of electricity consumption. In addition, the gaps between the highest and lowest consumed electricity units of each month reach to 60% and above on average among those schools with considerable frequency of using air-conditioning or with high utilization of central air-conditioners, it means that air-condition consumption is also one of the critical factors to influence electricity consumption at elementary and junior high schools.
At last, the study proposes suggestions and antidotes for those critical factors, which have impacts on current condition, including the greening levels of the greening area, the kinds of growing plants and ecological forestation; the levels of the ground water-holding capacity of the permeating plane ratio, the garden area of the artificial land and the storage design of play ground; the water consumption levels of the number of students(water consumed by students), the area of the school ground (irrigative water) and swimming pool consumption; and the class electricity consumption levels(lighting and ventilation) and the electricity load decrease in air-conditioning.
第一章 緒論1
1-1 前言1
1-2 研究目的2
1-3 文獻回顧2
(1)國民中小學學校建築現況相關文獻2
(2)綠化相關文獻3
(3)基地保水相關文獻4
1-4 研究流程5
第二章 研究方法6
2-1 研究範圍6
2-1-1 研究對象6
2-1-2 調查項目6
2-2 抽樣方法8
2-2-1樣本一抽樣方法及個數9
2-2-2樣本二抽樣方法及個數9
2-3 抽樣樣本與母體差異之解析10
2-4 調查方法11
第三章 調查成果12
3-1 校園現況基本資料12
3-1-1規模現況12
3-1-2密度現況19
3-1-3校地分配比例現況23
3-2 綠化現況24
3-2-1綠化規模現況25
3-2-2平面綠化密度現況27
3-2-3各類植栽面積比例現況28
3-2-4綠化指標合格率現況29
3-2-5喬木、灌木種類現況30
3-3 基地保水現況31
3-3-1基地保水規模現況31
3-3-2基地保水密度現況33
3-3-3不透水鋪面與透水鋪面比例現況34
3-3-4戶外停車場不透水與透水比例現況35
3-2-5基地保水指標合格率現況36
3-4 用水現況37
3-4-1用水規模現況37
3-4-2用水密度現況38
3-4-3每月用水現況39
3-4-4用水器具現況40
3-5 用電現況40
3-5-1用電規模現況40
3-5-2用電密度現況41
3-5-3每月用電現況42
第四章 調查成果解析44
4-1 綠化能力解析44
4-1-1 依學校規模解析44
4-1-2 依學校密度解析47
4-1-3 依植栽種類解析49
4-1-4 國民中小學綠化指標適用性檢討及建議50
4-2 基地保水能力解析53
4-2-1 依學校規模解析53
4-2-2 依學校密度解析56
4-2-3 依地表及鋪面現況解析58
4-2-4 國民中小學基地保水指標適用性檢討及建議59
4-3 用水解析63
4-3-1 單迴歸分析63
4-3-2 複迴歸分析64
4-4 用電解析66
4-4-1 相關性分析66
4-4-2 用電結構解析68
4-5 小結69
第五章 改善對策之建議71
5-1綠化指標對策建議71
5-2基地保水指標對策建議75
5-3省水對策建議77
5-4省電對策建議79
第六章 結 論85
參考文獻87
附錄一 89
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