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研究生:傅秉綱
研究生(外文):Ping-Kang Fu
論文名稱:三維建物模型表面影像敷貼自動化之研究
論文名稱(外文):Automatic Perspective Texture Mapping on 3D Building Models
指導教授:曾義星曾義星引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Hsing Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:測量工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:測量工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:影像透視轉換材質敷貼虛擬實境
外文關鍵詞:Image Perspective Transform(IPT)Texture MappingVirtual Reality
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:21
  • 點閱點閱:881
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:223
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
以往傳統的貼圖技術主要是以模擬的材質敷貼至三維模型的表面,到了今日在展現三維場景或城市模型成果時以真實的影像作為三維物體表面的敷貼材質已經變得非常普遍。然而以真實的像片做為敷貼材質時常因原始像片拍攝角度傾斜而造成後續貼圖時材質影像出現變形的情況,針對這種情形Devich與Weinhaus[1980]提出了一套透視轉換的理論(Image Perspective Transform, IPT),在已知攝影方位的情況下自動地找出敷貼的材質影像並將影像的變形糾正,但對複雜的建物而言每個模型面的材質可能需要由多張像片拼接而成,故如何選出最佳的像片做為模型面的材質影像便為一個重要的研究課題,因此本文以透視轉換的理論為基礎針對多邊形模型(Polygon Model)在已知攝影方位的情況下提出一套以整合性指標選出最佳敷貼材質的理論。

本文提出的理論可適用於以攝影測量方式從航測像片或近景像片中萃取而得的三維建物模型,在萃取建物模型的過程中必須恢復影像的方位並由立體量測可得到建物的物空間資訊。因此本文以萃取建物模型過程中得到之建物模型資料及影像方位做為原始資料來求解建物模型最後的材質影像。本文後續並針對小型物體及大型的實際建物進行實驗以證明本文提出的理論確實可行,最後的成果以虛擬實境模組語言(Virtual Reality Modeling Language, VRML)表示,因此可以 VRML瀏覽器來展示。
Traditional texture-mapping techniques mainly use fictitious texture patterns to represent generic surface material of 3D models. Nowadays, photo-realistic texture mapping of 3D objects has become a necessity for landscape or city modeling works. However, textures come from real-world photographs often oblique, so that the resulting appearance of the texture covering for the surface may be distorted. To cope with these problems, Devich and Weinhaus [1980] proposed the Image Perspective Transformation (IPT) technology, which is invented to find the mapping image portions automatically and to correct distortions on condition of knowing camera acquisition geometry. However, to use IPT method for a relatively complicated object, numerous photographs are frequently needed. Different portions of one or more photographs may be mapped onto each one of the object surfaces. Image selection for the best texture mapping becomes an important issue. To deal with this issue, this paper proposes a polygon-based IPT algorithm that is cooperated with some useful criteria set up to select the most suitable image or to combine images for texture mapping based on the considerations of camera acquisition geometry.
The proposed method is especially suitable for the applications of reconstructing 3D buildings using photogrammetric techniques. Through the photogrammetric procedures of image orientation recovery and stereo measurement, the spatial data of buildings can be extracted from multiple aerial or close-range images. Under this circumstance, the proposed IPT method naturally takes the data of building models and image orientation parameters as the input data to perform photo-realistic texture mapping for the extracted buildings. Several examples ranged over the texture mapping of small objects and large building structures are demonstrated. The results will be expressed in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) so that they can be shown with VRML-compatible visualization software.
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅱ
誌謝 Ⅲ
目錄 Ⅳ
表目錄 Ⅵ
圖目錄 Ⅶ

第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機與目的 1
1-2 文獻回顧 2
1-3 研究方法與流程 3
1-4 論文架構 4

第二章 建物表面影像材質敷貼理論 5
2-1 材質影像敷貼 5
2-1-1 正向貼圖(Forward Mapping) 6
2-1-2 影像材質建置(Inverse Mapping) 7
2-2 幾何關係描述 8
2-2-1 建物三維模型表示法 8
2-2-2 材質影像定義 9
2-2-3 透視影像之成像與方位 10
2-3 以攝影測量影像進行材質敷貼之方法 14
2-3-1 座標系統轉換關係 15
2-3-2 影像灰度值重新取樣 19

第三章 材質影像之選取與拼接 21
3-1 像片涵蓋情形 21
3-2 作業流程 22
3-3 選取條件 24
3-3-1 模型面與像片的物空間關係 24
3-3-2 選取指標 27
3-4 整合指標 33

第四章 實驗成果與分析 38
4-1實驗資料與實驗設計 38
4-1-1 實驗資料 38
4-1-2 實驗流程 41
4-2 實驗結果分析 42
4-2-1 實驗一 (成大護理系館) 43
4-2-2 實驗二 (成大總圖書館) 54

第五章 結論與建議 79

參考文獻 81
林文棋,「半自動化建物萃取之建物模型建置與操作」,國立成功大學測量工程研究所碩士論文,2001。

邱茂林,「三維都市模型在都市設計與景觀視覺模擬之應用探討-以台南市為例」,2001年兩岸自動化數字工程測量研討會論文集,民國九十年9月,台南國立成功大學,pp.90-105,2001。

張峰銘,「電腦繪圖」,松崗電腦圖書資料股份有限公司,pp.11-11~11-18,1994。

黃文利,「近景攝影測量應用於三維建物模型側面影像敷貼之研究」,國立成功大學測量工程研究所碩士論文,2001。

劉虹妤,「數位相機率定之自動化」,國立成功大學測量工程研究所碩士論文,2000。

Blinn, J. F., Newell and M. E., "Texture and Reflection in Computer Generated Images", Commun. ACM 19, 10 (May), pp. 542–547, 1976.

Braun, C., T. H. Kolbe, F. Lang, W. Schickler, V. Steinhage, A. B. Cremers, W. Förstner and L. Pluemer, "Models for Photogrammetric Building Reconstruction", Computers & Graphics, pp. 109-118, 1995.

Bunker, M., Economy, R., and Harvey, J., "Cell Texture—Its Impact on Computer Image Generation", In Proceedings of the Sixth Interservice/Industry Training Equipment Conference (National Security Industrial Association, Washington, DC, Oct.), pp. 149–155, 1984.

Catmull, E., "Computer Display of Curved Surfaces", In Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Graphics", Pattern Recognition and Data Structures (IEEE Computer Society, New York, May 14–16), pp. 11–17, 1975.

EOS, 2000. http://www.photomodeler.com/

Förstner, W. and Gülch, E., "Automatic orientation and recognition in highly structured scenes", ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Scensing 54, pp. 23-34, 1999.

Grün, A., "Semi-automated Approaches to Site Recording and Modeling", International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Amsterdam, XXXIII, pp. 309-318, 2000.

Gülch, E., "Application of Semi-Automatic Building Acquisition", Automatic Extraction of Man-Made Objects from Aerial and Space Images(Ⅱ), Birkhauser Verlag , Basel, pp. 129-138, 1997.

Haala, N. and C. Brenner, "Extraction of Building and Trees in Urban Environments ", ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 54, pp.130~137, 1999.

Heckbert, P. S., "Survey of Texture Mapping", IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. (Sept.), pp. 56–67, 1986b.

Hendrickx, M., J. Vandekerckhove, D. Frere, T. Moons and L. van Gool, "3D Reconstruction of House Roofs from Multiple Aerial Images of Urban Areas, International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing", Columbus, Ohio, 32, Part 3, pp. 88-94, 1997.

Huang, h. and J. C. Trinder, "Object Recognition Based on Boundary Description", Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 65(8), pp. 915-921, 1999.

Lang, F., T. Loecherbach and W. Schickler, "A One-eye Stereo System for Semi-automatic 3D-building Extraction", Geomatics Info Magazine, pp. 1-4, 1995.

Lang, F. and W. Förstner, "3D-City Modeling with a Digital One-eye Stereo System", International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vienna, Vol. 31, pp. 415-420, 1996.

Veldhuis, H., "Performance Analysis of Two Fitting Algorithms for The Measurement of Parameterized Objects", ISPRS Commission 3 ,Working Group 4, pp. 400-407, 1998.

Vosselman, G. and H. Veldhuis, "Mapping by Dragging and Fitting of Wire-Frame Models", Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 65(7), pp. 769-776, 1999.

Weinhaus, F. and V. Devarajan, "Texture Mapping 3-D Models of Real world Scenes", ACM Comput. Surveys 29,No. 4, pp. 325–365, 1997.

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