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 三維城市模型(3D City Model)成為目前熱門的研究課題，其中三維建物資料的獲取是許多攝影測量學者感興趣的問題，近景攝影測量可以輔助航空攝影測量之不足，針對結構較複雜或具有代表性的建物建立更為細緻的三維建物模型。本文採用建構實體幾何(Constructive Solid Geometry, CSG)模型來表示建物，並以最小二乘模型-影像套合法(Least-Squares Model-Image Fitting, LSMIF)分別解算像片的方位元素及新建元件之模型參數。方位重建(Orientation Recovery)是攝影測量作業中一項重要的程序，本研究利用已知的建物模型做為控制，運用最小二乘模型-影像套合法將線框模型的投影線套合至影像上建物的邊緣線，以求解像片外方位元素。此方法是將線框模型依初始外方位元素投影到影像上，以影像上萃取出的建物邊緣線像元到模型投影線的距離平方和為最小作為目標函式，再利用最小二乘法平差解算外方位元素的增量，逐次調整外方位元素，俾使模型投影線與影像上建物邊緣線的萃取點盡可能地吻合，最後求得最佳套合時的像片外方位元素。當同一建物所有影像均完成方位重建後，選擇適當的CSG模型對影像上的建物進行重建。此處仍採用最小二乘模型-影像套合法，惟待定未知數改為模型參數而非像片之方位元素，最後考慮模型之間的約制關係，依據建構實體幾何樹(CSG Tree)的概念，利用布林運算(Boolean Set Operator)進一步將模型組合成一棟完整建物。本研究選定成大校區內兩棟建物做為研究對象，以數位像機拍攝建物影像，從既有的三維數值地形圖取得三維建物模型資料，利用最小二乘模型-影像套合法求解近景像片的外方位元素，接著選用適當的CSG模型以重建建物的細節，再次使用最小二乘模型-影像套合法求解其最佳模型參數，最後組合成完整的三維建物，以驗證本研究的可行性及成效。
 Many applications, such as traffic management, urban planning, tourist guiding, require a 3D city model as their basic spatial information, which makes building extraction a hot research topic in the last two decades. Model-based Building Extraction (MBBE) from aerial images has proved an efficient approach of building reconstruction for a large area. However, building details, such as balconies and profile images, are frequently occluded in aerial images. In this research, close-range photogrammetry is used to reconstruct building details. To deal with this problem, two major tasks were tackled: recovering image orientation using exist coarse model as ground control, and reconstructing the detail parts of buildings from the close-range images.For recovering image orientation, building models extracted from aerial images are used as control, which will be decomposed into 3D line segments. The exterior orientation parameters are determined based on the fitting between the projected line segments and extracted edge pixels in the image space .The fitting criterion is minimizing the squares sum of the distances from extracted edge pixels to projected line segments. Using the Newton’s method, the optimal solution is obtained iteratively by giving an initial approximation.Once the image orientation is determined, the detail parts of buildings can be extracted using Least-squares Model-image Fitting (LSMIF) algorithm developed by Chou and Tseng [2001]. The newly extracted building parts are used to update the original building model. The final model is composed as a CSG tree via Boolean Set Operator.Two previously reconstructed building models from aerial images were tried for updating as test examples. Recovering image orientation using model-image fitting method was successful in both cases. The results were used to intersect some point coordinates and compared with ground measures for verification. The RMS errors are smaller than 20 cm in X-Y plane and 30 cm in Z-axis. After that, building details were also successfully extracted and attached to the original building model. These preliminary test results show the application potential of the proposed method.
 目錄中文摘要………………………………………………….Ⅰ英文摘要………………………………………………….Ⅰ誌謝……………………………………………………….Ⅰ目錄……………………………………………………….Ⅲ表目錄…………………………………………………….Ⅴ圖目錄…………………………………………………….Ⅵ第一章 前言……………………………………………1§ 1-1 研究動機與目的……………………………………1§ 1-2 文獻回顧……………………………………………2§ 1-3 研究方法與流程……………………………………4§ 1-4 論文架構……………………………………………6第二章 三維建物重建理論……………………………8§ 2-1 三維建物重建方法…………………………………8§ 2-1-1 以現有圖籍建置法………………………………8§ 2-1-2 空載雷射掃描法…………………………………9§ 2-1-3 攝影測量法………………………………………10§ 2-1-4 攝影測量進行三維建物重建的作業流程………11§ 2-2 方位重建……………………………………………13§ 2-2-1 以點為控制………………………………………14§ 2-2-2 以線為控制………………………………………18§ 2-2-3 以面為控制………………………………………19§ 2-2-4 以模型為控制……………………………………21§ 2-3 建物重建……………………………………………22§ 2-3-1 以點為量測單元…………………………………23§ 2-3-2 以線為量測單元…………………………………25§ 2-3-3 以模型為量測單元………………………………26第三章 模型式建物重建………………………………28§ 3-1 理論架構……………………………………………28§ 3-2 方位重建……………………………………………30§ 3-2-1 坐標系統的轉換…………………………………30§ 3-2-2 物空間控制與像片觀測量………………………35§ 3-2-3 觀測方程式………………………………………37§ 3-2-4 最小二乘套合……………………………………39§ 3-2-5 偏微分的計算……………………………………40§ 3-3 建物重建……………………………………………44§ 3-3-1 模型的定義與參數………………………………45§ 3-3-2 模型坐標轉換到物空間坐標……………………46§ 3-3-3 建置近似模型……………………………………48§ 3-3-4 最佳模型參數的計算……………………………50§ 3-3-5 建物的約制條件…………………………………50第四章 實驗方法與成果………………………………52§ 4-1 實驗資料說明………………………………………52§ 4-2 作業流程……………………………………………54§ 4-2-1 方位重建作業流程………………………………54§ 4-2-2 建物重建作業流程………………………………56§ 4-3 實驗設計……………………………………………59§ 4-3-1 外方位各元素在套合過程中的收斂範圍………59§ 4-3-2 最小二乘模型-影像套合法求解外方位元素之成果………………………………………………………62§ 4-3-3 模型式建物重建實例一…………………………64§ 4-3-4 模型式建物重建實例二…………………………68第五章 結論與建議……………………………………86參考文獻……………………………………………………………89
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 1 三維建物模型表面影像敷貼自動化之研究 2 地面光達點雲資料的平差結合與影像敷貼 3 半自動化建物萃取之建物模型建置與操作 4 從都市區立體航照影像中萃取屋頂面的實用策略 5 非量測型數位相機應用於近景攝影測量之研究－使用三∼六百萬畫素相機 6 三維雷射掃描技術應用之研究-3D物件建模與變形模擬為例 7 多重疊航照立體對半自動房屋模型重建 8 以最小二乘法進行參數式模型與影像之最佳套合 9 影像控制區塊自動化量測及方位求解作業之探討 10 三維房屋模型實景紋理影像製作與敷貼之研究 11 以浮測模型理論萃取三維空間資訊-以建物重建為例 12 最小二乘模型與影像套合之後續探討 13 建築物幾何模塑及其於航照影像正射化之應用 14 三維擬真校園建置績效之研究 15 以影像控制區塊解算航攝影像外方位參數實用策略

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 1 以非量測性相機進行近景攝影測量探討 2 近景攝影測量應用於三維建物模型側面影像敷貼之研究 3 非量測型數位相機應用於近景攝影測量之研究－使用三∼六百萬畫素相機 4 三維雷射掃描技術應用之研究-3D物件建模與變形模擬為例 5 三維建物模型表面影像敷貼自動化之研究 6 近景攝影測量3D視覺化建物模擬之應用 7 近景攝影測量與高動態範圍技術應用於隧道變形監測 8 近景攝影測量應用於鋪面裂縫及車轍偵測之研究 9 近景攝影測量於橋梁監測應用之研究 10 地面光達點雲資料的平差結合與影像敷貼 11 應用近景攝影與地面雷射掃瞄於地物量測精度及三維建模之研究 12 應用航空攝影測量技術改善3D城市模型建構之研究 13 未校正影像三維模型建構與定位精度之研究 14 利用光達與近景攝影測量方法獲取水下數值高程模型 15 近景攝影測量量測地形樣貌與山坡地崩塌量之研究-以苗栗火炎山為例

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