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研究生:黃識銓
研究生(外文):Shih-Chuan Huang
論文名稱:MPEG-4結構音訊與網路音樂服務
論文名稱(外文):MPEG-4 Structured Audio and The Internet Music Service
指導教授:蘇文鈺蘇文鈺引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Yu Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:管絃樂排程可變式延遲元件無線脈衝響應模型疊加式正弦波模型樂譜聲音合成波形表結構音訊
外文關鍵詞:Sinusoidal ModelingVDEIIR SynthesisScoreSASLMIDISASBFSAOLMPEG-4 Structured AudioOrchestraWavetableScheduler
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隨著網路使用人口的急速增加,建立高品質及高效率的多媒體傳輸方式,用以適應網路頻寬有限且不穩定的情況,是相當重要的工作。由於多媒體資訊,不論是聲音或是影像,都有資料量過於龐大的限制,因此在許多電腦及消費性電子產品應用上,都已經採取標準的資料壓縮方式來降低龐大的資料量;如MPEG、JPEG、以及H.263等等。
在網路上的音樂傳輸方面,一般以訊號編碼為主的音訊多媒體需要的頻寬隨音質的需求而提高,在網路頻寬有限的情況下,音質常不能令人滿意。另一種MIDI格式的音樂檔案,其資料量雖遠較上者為低,但由於只傳輸控制參數,對於音色方面只有選擇的能力,且聲音會隨著不同的軟硬體發聲引擎而造成差異。如何改進以上的缺點,並在降低資料量和維持聲音品質上取得平衡,將是新一代的音樂傳輸系統所需致力的方向。
在MPEG-4的標準中,Audio部分的第五Section即規定了結構音訊的規格(Structured Audio;簡稱SA)。透過此一技術及巧妙的編碼方式,我們可以使音樂的資料量落在0至2、3 kbps的範圍之內,如此即可以很容易的在網路上傳輸高品質的音樂。在本論文中我們即是利用MPEG-4 結構音訊的技術來架構一個高品質且高效率的網路音樂服務系統,並將高品質的聲音合成法嵌入到MPEG-4 SA中加以應用。
Upon the increasing internet-users, we believe that an inevitable task nowadays is to make the way of multimedia transmission much higher quality as well as efficiency in order to cope with the limited and unstable internet-bandwidth. As far as we know, the multimedia information, such as sound and image, has a critical issue : the huge data when being processed. That’s why the standard methods like MPEG, JPEG and H 263 are applied to many computer-based or commercially electronic products for reducing huge data.
Regarding the sound-transmission through the Internet, the bandwidth for the general signal coding sound-info multimedia will definitely increase to get a better quality. However, under the condition of the limited internet-bandwidth, we are usually unsatisfied with its quality. Another sound file with MIDI format has lower data-load than previous one, but it carries only control parameters; therefore, its performance differs whenever hardware or software sound-generating engine alters.
As a result, we believe that to keep the balance between lowering data-load and maintaining sound quality is the right direction for the new sound-transmission system in the near future.
In the MPEG-4 standard, the 5th section of the Audio defines the structured audio. The synthetic sound data then can be ranged between 0 to 2 or 3 kbps by this technique with terrific coding. Consequently, it is easy for us to transmit high quality music through the Internet. In this study, we intend to form a high quality and high efficiency Internet music service system by utilizing MPEG-4 SA technique. And implement the high quality synthetic method by this technique.
目 錄

摘 要………………………………………………………………….i
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………ii
致 謝………………………………………………………………...iii
目 錄………………………………………………………………...iv
圖 目 錄………………………………………………………………...vi
表 目 錄………………………………………………………………..vii
符 號……………………………………………………………….viii


1 研究動機與目的……………………………………………...……...1
1.1 研究動機…………………………………………………………………….1
1.2 研究目的…………………………………………………………………….3
2 MPEG-4 結構音訊 (MPEG-4 Structured Audio)…………………..5
2.1 MPEG-4 結構音訊五個主要的組成要素………………………………….5
2.2 MPEG-4 結構音訊的四種標準物件型式………………………………….7
2.3 MPEG-4 結構音訊的定義………………………………………………….8
2.4 MPEG-4 結構音訊的描述方法…………………………………………...14
2.5 SAOL的語法與語意………………………………………………………15
2.5.1 SAOL辭的構成要…………………………………………………………15
2.5.2 SAOL的變數和值…………………………………………………………16
2.5.3 Orchestra…………………………………………………………………...16
2.6 SAOL core opcode的定義…………………………………………………20
2.7 SAOL core wavetable generators的定義…… ……………………………22
2.8 SASL的語法與語意………………………………………………………23
2.9 MPEG-4 結構音訊的執行模式…………..………………………………24
3 MPEG-4 結構音訊的編碼與解碼…………………………………26
3.1 文字模式的SAOL與SASL………………………………………………26
3.2 MPEG-4 結構音訊Elementary Stream的編碼…….……………………32
3.3 MPEG-4 結構音訊的解碼……………………..…….……………………36
3.3.1 Decoder configuration header……………………………………………...38
3.3.2 資料流的資料和聲音的建立……………………………………………..38
3.3.2.1 排程(Scheduler)…………………………………………………………39
3.3.2.2 管絃樂的開始和設定…………………………………………………..39
3.3.2.3 管絃樂解碼的執行……………………………………………………..40
3.3.3 解碼器實作………………………………………………………………..42
4 MPEG-4 結構音訊與聲音合成法…………………………………44
4.1 疊加式正弦波模型合成法(Overlap-Add Sinusoidal Modeling)………….44
4.1.1 以合成為目的的分析過程………………………………………………...45
4.1.2 Sinusoidal Modeling於MPEG-4 結構音訊應用實例……………………47
4.2 無線脈衝響應模型合成法(IIR Synthesis)………………………………...49
4.2.1 IIR Synthesis合成元件……………………………………………………51
4.2.2 IIR Synthesis於MPEG-4 結構音訊應用實例……………………………52
4.2.3 使用VDE產生滑音彈奏效果的MPEG-4 結構音訊應用實例…………54
5 結論與未來展望……………………………………………………58
6 參考文獻……………………………………………………………59
7 附錄…………………………………………………………………62
8 自述…………………………………………………………………66
[1] ISO/IEC 11172:1993 Information technology – Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5Mbit/s, part3 audio.
[2] Christian Braut. “The Musician’s Guide to MIDI”, SYBEX Inc. 1285-4.
[3] http://www.northwestern.edu/musicschool/links/projects/midi/pages/whatmidi.html, 1997
[4] I SO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 N2503-sec5 1999-3-10, “Information technology – Coding of audio-visual objects, Part 3 : Audio, Section 5 : Structured Audio”.
[5] Eric D. Scheirer, April 1999, “THE MPEG-4 STRUCTURED AUDIO STANDARD”, E15-401D MIT Media Laboratory Cambridge MA 02139.
[6] http://sound.media.mit.edu/mpeg4/, May 1998
[7] http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~lazzaro/sa/index.html, 2000
[8] Eric D. Scheirer, Youngjik Lee and Jae-Woo Yang, “Synthetic and SNHC Audio in MPEG-4”, E15-401D MIT Media Laboratory Cambridge MA 02139, and Switching and Transmission Technology Laboratories, ETRI.
[9] Eric D. Scheirer, June 1999, “External Documentation and Release Notes for saolc”, MIT Media Laboratory, eds@media.mit.edu.
[10] John Lazzaro, John Wawrzynek, 1999, “The MPEG-4 Structured Audio Book”, CS of UC Berkeley, http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~lazzaro/sa/book/index.html.
[11] Eric D. Scheirer, June 1999, “The 'saolc' implementation”, http://web.media.mit.edu/~eds/mpeg4-old/#saolc.
[12] ISO/IEC 14496-3:1999/Cor.1:2001(E), “Information technology – Coding of audio-visual objects – Part3 : Audio, TECHNICAL CORRIGENDUM”.
[13] Mattew Wright (1) and Eric D. Scheirer (2), 1999, “Cross-Coding SDIF into MPEG-4 Structured Audio”, (1) Center for New Music and Audio Technologies, UC Berkeley, matt@cnmat.berkeley.edu and (2) Machine Listening Group, MIT Media Laboratory, eds@media.mit.edu
[14] J. Chowning, "The Synthesis of Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Frequency Modulation," Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 21(7), 1973; reprinted in Computer Music Journal 1(2), 1977.
[15] Erik Holsinger, How Music and Computers Work, Ziff-Davis Press, Calif., 1994.
[16] Samuel Pellman, An Introduction to the Creation of Electroacoustic Music, Wadsworth Pub. Co., Calif., 1994.
[17] E. Bryan George and Mark J. T. Smith, “Analysis-by-Synthesis/Over-Add Sinusoidal Modeling Applied to the Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Tones”, Journal Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 40, No. 6, 1992 June.
[18] Alvin W.Y. Su and S.F. Liang, “A New Automatic IIR Analysis/Synthesis Technique For Plucked-String Instruments”, IEEE. Trans. On Speech and Audio, p.747, Vol.9, No.7, 10/2001.
[19] Alvin W. Y. Su and S. F. Liang, “A Class of Physical Modeling Recurrent Networks For Analysis/Synthesis of Plucked-String instruments”, accepted for publication by IEEE. Trans. On Neural Networks, 2001.
[20] Alvin W.Y. Su and S.F. Liang, “A New Automatic IIR Analysis/Synthesis Technique For Plucked-String Instruments”, IEEE. Trans. On Speech and Audio, p.747, Vol.9, No.7, 10/2001.
[21] Alvin W. Y. Su and Rei-Wen Wang, “A Novel Portamento Embedded Model for Electronic Music Analysis/Synthesis”, the 110th Audio Engineering Society Convention paper 5330, 5/2001.
[22] Alvin W. Y. Su, S. F. Liang, and C. T. Lin, “Model-Based Synthesis of Plucked String Instruments by Using a Class of Scattering Recurrent Networks,” Vol.11, No.1, p.1-p.16, IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Jan. 2000.
[23] Alvin W. Y. Su and S. F. Liang, “A Generalized Model-Based Analysis/Synthesis Method for Plucked-String Instruments by Using Recurrent Neural Networks”, the 106th AES Convention and Conference, 5/1999, Invited Paper. NSC-87-2213-E-2160-08.
[24] Alvin W. Y. Su and S. F. Liang, “Synthesis of Plucked-String Tones by Physical Modeling with Recurrent Neural Networks”, in Proceedings of the IEEE. 1997 Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, (Princeton, NJ, 1997), pp.71-76.
[25] Risset, J. C., “Additive Synthesis of Inharmonic Tones”, Current Directions in Computer Music Researches, MIT Press, 1991.
[26] Moore, F. Richard, “Elements of Computer Music”, Prentice Hall, 1990.
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