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研究生:劉建沛
研究生(外文):Jian-Pei Liu
論文名稱:在3GPPGMLC上預測使用者位置技術之設計
論文名稱(外文):Design of an OSA-based Location Prediction Technique in 3GPP GMLC
指導教授:鄭憲宗鄭憲宗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sheng-Tzong Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:61
外文關鍵詞:location predictionOSAGMLClocation service
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由於近年來行動通訊的快速成長,各種相關設備及服務不斷地推陳出新以吸引用戶消費。而從第二代行動網路至GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)到第三代行動網路 (3G-network),愈來愈進步成熟的電信架構與傳輸品質,使得能夠提供的應用服務也就愈來愈豐富。現在,使用行動網路不一定只能透過手機,而使用手機的目的也不單單只是為了通話而已。透過不同的行動裝置使用行動網路上的服務,已經成為了最新流行的趨勢,股市查詢、算命、還有遊戲,都可以是新的應用。為了更貼近人們的生活,應該要有一些資訊能夠輔助這些新的應用服務,使得這些服務能夠提供更人性化、更方便的功能內涵。我們認為使用者的位置資訊能夠幫助新的應用服務達到這個目標,甚至於產生更好的服務品質與能力。
經過我們的調查和研究,在3GPP (The 3rd Generation Partnership Project)的規格書中,提供了一套OSA(Open Service Access)的機制,能夠提供應用程式經由呼叫標準應用程式介面 (standard API)的方式來使用行動網路本身的服務與能力。透過這樣的方式,應用服務就可以呼叫位於行動網路中的一個節點 ─ GMLC(Gateway Mobile Location Center)來執行擷取使用者位置資訊的功能。如此一來,位置相關的應用,就能夠提供其所應呈現的服務。可是,這樣的擷取程式,每此都須詢問HLR/HSS (Home Location Register/ Home Subscriber Server)的資料庫以獲得路由 (route)的資訊。而在第三代行動網路中,許多其他的功能與服務,也需要向HLR/HSS 做類似的動作。這造成整個系統的瓶頸。
因此,本論文除了研究擷取使用者位置資訊的程式之外,主要的課題在於提出一套預測使用者位置的機制,藉以簡化擷取使用者位置資訊的步驟,進而提昇整個行動網路的效能。
Due to the rapid development of mobile communication, varied kind of related devices and services are produced constantly. From the 2G mobile network to 2.5G (GPRS, General Packet Radio Service) and to the 3G network, the mature telecommunication architecture and quality transmission lead the service application plentiful. It is not necessary to access the mobile network via handset, and the function of handset is also not just talking. Using the various mobile devices to access the service in the mobile network becomes the fashion. Querying the stock market, fortune-telling and playing online game are these kind of new type mobile services. For assisting these service to providing more convenient and human functionalities, some kind of information should be offered to services. And, we think that the user location information is the answer of this question.
In the specifications of 3GPP (The 3rd Generation Partnership Project), it proposed a mechanism named as OSA (Open Service Access). It provides applications to be served by the telecommunication network functionalities via calling the standard API. Therefore, the location-based service can request the user location information by way of OSA, and demand the GMLC (Gateway Mobile Location Center) to perform positioning procedure. But, it needs to query the HLR/HSS to obtain the routing information while each request. Other functionalities and service in 3G network also have to do similar actions. It becomes the bottleneck of all system.
Consequently, there is another issue in our paper beside the research of requesting user location information. It is that we will propose a location prediction technique to reduce the positioning procedure. Finally, this technique can improve the performance of system.
Table of Contents

摘要............................................................... i
Abstract.......................................................... ii
誌謝..................................................... ....... iii
Table of Contents......................................... ....... iv
List of Tables.................................................... vi
List of Figures.................................................. vii

Chapter 1 Introduction............................................. 1
1.1 Motivation and Goal............................................ 1
1.2 Overview of Location Service in 3G-network..................... 2
1.3 Thesis Organization............................................ 3

Chapter 2 Background and Relative Work............................. 5
2.1 Open Service Access............................................ 5
2.1.1 JAIN Parlay.................................................. 5
2.1.2 3GPP OSA..................................................... 8
2.1.3 Comparison.................................................. 13
2.2 3G-network Architecture for LCS............................... 13
2.3 Positioning Technique......................................... 16
2.3.1 AOA Positioning Technique................................... 17
2.3.2 TOA Positioning Technique .................................. 18

Chapter 3 LCS Model............................................... 20
3.1 How to Request User Location.................................. 22
3 2 LCS-OSA for Requesting User Location ......................... 28
3.3 Request Location Procedure Reduction by Location Prediction... 31

Chapter 4 Location Prediction Technique in GMLC .................. 35
4.1 Idea and Concept.............................................. 35
4.2 Prediction Model in GMLC...................................... 36
4.2.1 Prediction Architecture in GMLC............................. 36
4.2.2 Problem Statement .......................................... 38
4.2.3 Prediction Model Target .................................... 40
4.3 Time Threshold Scheme ........................................ 42
4.3.1 Analysis for The Time Threshold ............................ 42
4.3.2 Scheme Model................................................ 45
4.4 Data Mining Rule Match Scheme ................................ 46
4.4.1 Mobility Model.............................................. 46
4.4.2 Data Mining Association Rule................................ 49
4.4.3 Scheme Model................................................ 51
4.5 Simulation and Discussion..................................... 54
Chapter 5 Conclusions............................................. 58
Reference ........................................................ 59
﹝1﹞ 3GPP TS 23.271: "Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; Functional stage 2 description of LCS".
﹝2﹞ 3GPP TS 23.171: "Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; Functional stage 2 description of location service in UMTS".
﹝3﹞ 3GPP TS 23.302: "Technical Specification Group Core Network; Universal
Geographical Area Description (GAD)".
﹝4﹞ EIA/TIA, "Cellular radiotelecommunication intersystem operation," Revision B, Tech. Rep. IS-41, EIA/TIA, 1991.
﹝5﹞ Yi-Bing Lin, "Determining the User Locations for Personal Communications
Services Networks," IEEE Trans. on vehiculr tech., Vol.43, No.3, Aug.1994.
﹝6﹞ T. Liu, P. Bahl and I. Chlamtac, "Mobility Modeling, Location Tracking, and Trajectory Prediction in Wireless ATM Networks," IEEE J. On selected areas in Commun., Vol.16, No.6, Aug.1998.
﹝7﹞ P. G. Escalle, V. C. Giner, and J. M. Oltra, "Reducing Location Update and Paging Costs in a PCS Network," IEEE Trans. on wireless commnu., Vol.1, No.1, Jan.2002.
﹝8﹞ The JAIN Technology, http://java.sun.com/products/jain/overview.html.
﹝9﹞ Sun Microsystem, "The JAIN APIs: Integrated Network APIs for the Java Platform", Sep.2001.
﹝10﹞3GPP TS 23.127: "Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; Virtual Home Environment/Open Service Access".
﹝11﹞3GPP TS 22.127: "Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; Service aspects; Stage 1 Service Requirement for the Open Service Access (OSA)".
﹝12﹞3GPP TS 29.198-1: "Technical Specification Group Core Network; Open Service Access (OSA); Application Programming Interface(API); Part 1: Overview".﹝13﹞3GPP TS 29.198-3: "Technical Specification Group Core Network; Open Service Access (OSA); Application Programming Interface(API); Part 3: Framework".
﹝14﹞3GPP home page, http://www.3gpp.org.
﹝15﹞S. Mangold, S. Kyriazakos, "Applying Pattern Recognition Techniques based on Hidden Markov Models for Vehicular Position Location in Cellular Networks,"
50th IEEE VTC 1999.
﹝16﹞G. Gunnarsson, M. Alanen, T. Rantalainen, V. Ruutu, V-M. Teittinen, "Location Trial System for Mobile Phones," IEEE 1998.
﹝17﹞R. Klukas, G. Lachapelle, M. Fat-touche, "Field Tests of a Cellular Telephone Positioning System," IEEE VTC 1997.
﹝18﹞3GPP TS 23.002: "Technical Specification Group Services and Systems Aspects; Network architecture".
﹝19﹞3GPP TS 23.271: "Technical Specification Group Services and Systems Aspects; Functional stage 2 description of LCS".
﹝20﹞3GPP TS 23.171: "Technical Specification Group Services and Systems Aspects; Functional stage 2 description of location services in UMTS".
﹝21﹞The Parlay Group, http://www.parlay.org.
﹝22﹞3GPP TS 25.305: "Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Stage 2 functional specification of UE positioning in UTRAN".
﹝23﹞3GPP TS 43.059: "Technical Specification Group GSM/EDGE Radio Access
Network; Functional Stage 2 description of Location Services in GERAN".
﹝24﹞3GPP TS 23.060: "Technical Specification Group Services and Systems Aspects; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 2".
﹝25﹞3GPP TS 29.198-6: "Technical Specification Group Core Network; Open Service Access (OSA); Application Programming Interface(API); Part 6: Mobility".
﹝26﹞Yi-Bing Lin, "Reducing Location Update Cost in a PCS Network," IEEE/ACM
Trans. on Networking, Vol.5, No.1, Feb.2002.
﹝27﹞David A. Patterson, John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization & Design: The
Hardware/Software Interface. 2nd ed. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, California, 1997.
﹝28﹞Sheng-Tzong Cheng and Chi-Ming Chen, "Configuration and Location Management of Mobile-Switch ATM Networks," JNSM, Vol.9, No.4, Dec.2001.
﹝29﹞Rakesh Agrawal, Ramakrishnan Srikant, "Fast Algorithms for Mining Association Rules," Proceedings of the 20th VLDB Conference Santiago, Chile, 1994
﹝30﹞J.M. Gil, C.Y. Park, C.S Hwang, D.S. Park, J.G. Shon and Y.S. Jeong, "Restoration Scheme of Mobility Databases by Mobility Learning and Prediction in PCS Networks," IEEE J. On selected areas in Commun., Vol.19, No.10, Oct.2001.
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