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研究生:呂其展
研究生(外文):Chyi-Chan Lu
論文名稱:運用影像序列建構與顯示三維地形模型之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on 3D Terrain Reconstruction and Display from Video
指導教授:孫永年孫永年引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yung-Nien Sun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:基礎矩陣重構數值地形模型相機校正電腦視覺
外文關鍵詞:digital terrain modelDTMfundamental matrixcomputer visionself-calibrationreconstruction
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
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  • 下載下載:146
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
三維空間數值地形模型(Digital Terrain Model)資料之使用在近年來有逐漸增加之趨勢,不論是在國防軍事、遙測影像、生態保育上都有其相關的應用。但由於要獲取地貌之三維立體座標遠比二維平面座標困難,因此,如何藉由影像處理與電腦視覺技術自動獲取地形的三維座標,已成為近年來電腦視覺研究領域中受重視之研究方向之一。

在一般三維地形模型重構的研究當中,其所使用的技術與方法常常需要仰賴特殊且昂貴的設備來協助,或是利用一些特殊的影像資料。此外,還需經由許多複雜而煩瑣人工設定與校準之後,才能獲得相關的資訊來產生真實的三維地形模型。然而,在本研究中,我們選擇利用一台一般的數位攝影機來拍攝我們所要重構地形場景的連續影像,再利用此一連續影像序列做特徵點的萃取與追踨。再藉由這些特徵點的對應關係來計算相對應的投影幾何關係,進而利用影像間投影幾何的關係來對攝影機做自我校正。最後,可自動地重構出整個真實場景在三維空間中的地形模型。故雖然我們的主要目的同樣是重構出真實場景的三維地形模型,但我們的系統十分簡易、方便,並不需要特殊的設備、儀器,或是其它額外的資訊,也不需要經過煩瑣的相機校正(calibration)及太多的人工介入,而同樣也能夠達到自動建立三維地形模型的目標。
Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) digital terrain model (DTM) has become very popular and widely used in various fields, including military, navigation, remote sensing, and ecological protection. To obtain 3D coordinates from a sequence of 2D terrain images is not a trivial task, and is nowadays an important topic in computer vision research. It is generally intended to recover the 3D coordinates of the terrain model automatically by using the image processing and computer vision techniques.
In most 3D terrain reconstruction research, expensive equipment or specialized image data structure are usually employed to acquire the 3D information. Furthermore, lots of manual operations, calibration, complex setup and regulation are also inevitable. In this thesis, we use a general-purposed digital video recorder to acquire a series of 2D images. By extracting and tracking the feature points of these images, the correlation among corresponding feature points in the consecutive images can be used to calculate the geometry structure. The camera parameters of the digital video recorder can be obtained after the self-calibration based on geometry structure. Finally, the 3D world coordinates of the model can be reconstructed by triangulation with these parameters automatically. In comparison with the existing methods, our system is simpler and more convenient without special equipment or extra information. Neither the complex camera calibration nor lots of artificial interference is necessary. Our proposed system is an easier alternative to reconstruct the 3D terrain model automatically.
中文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………………...i
英文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………………..ii
目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………….iii
圖目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………..v
第一章. 論文簡介 ……………………………………………………………...….1
1.1 研究動機 ………………………………………………………..…...1
1.2研究方法與背景.……….…………………………….………..……...3
1.3 相關研究……………………………………………………… ..……5
1.4論文組織……………………………………………………….……...7
第二章. 相機幾何 ………..…………………………………………….….………9
2.1相機模型 ………………….………………………………….………9
2.2 傳統相機參數校正 ………..……..……………………….….…….14
2.3 三維幾何轉換關係 ……………………………….………………..15
第三章. 同軸幾何與基礎矩陣 …..……………………………………………....17
3.1 同軸幾何 …………....…………………………………………..….17
3.2 基礎矩陣 …………....…………………………….………………. 19
3.3 自動化估算基礎矩陣 …………….………………….…………….20
3.3.1 特徵點之選取與追踨 ….……………………………………...20
3.3.2 線性估測法 ………….………………………………………...23
3.3.3 非線性估測法 …………………………………………………31
3.3.4 強健估測法 ……………………………………………….…...34
3.3.5基礎矩陣估算之自動化 ……………...…………………….….39
3.4 影像矯正 …………………………………………………………...40
第四章. 參考實地特徵之三維模型重構 …………………………………..…....43
4.1 投影重構 ………………………………………………………..….43
4.1.1 相機投影矩陣與參考座標 … ………………………….…..43
4.1.2 深度量測 ………………………………………..…….…….46
4.1.3 多張影像空間之相關性 ……………………………..……..49
4.2 相似標準重構 …………………………...…………………….…...53
4.2.1 相似標準轉換……..…………………………………………53
4.2.2 相機自我校正……………………………….……………….55
4.2.3 實作相機自我校正……………………….………………….57
4.3 三維模型顯示 …………………...………………….……………...60
4.3.1 繪製模型 ……………………………………….…………...60
4.3.2 三角化及材質貼圖 ……………………………….………...63
第五章. 實驗結果與討論 ………………………………………………………..65
5.1 系統概述 ………………………………………………….………..65
5.2 人造模型影像之實驗 …..……………………….…………...…….66
5.3 自然地型影像之實驗 ……………………………………………...69
第六章. 結論及未來展望 ……………………………………….……………….72
6.1 結論 …………………………………………………………….…..72
6.2 未來展望 …………………………………….………….………….73
■ 參考文獻 ……………………………………………………………………….75
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