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研究生:王健權
研究生(外文):Chien-Chuan Wang
論文名稱:以數位影像處理搭配動態攝影機做即時人臉追蹤之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study on Real-Time Human Face Tracking by the Technology of Digital Image Processing with Active Camera
指導教授:毛齊武毛齊武引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Wu Mao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:43
中文關鍵詞:橢圓形頭部追蹤動態攝影機膚色分析
外文關鍵詞:active cameraelliptical head trackerskin color
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:31
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  • 下載下載:742
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
近來影像技術因電腦效能的提昇,其運用越來越廣泛,尤其以視訊會議系統、人臉辨識、機械視覺多有研究,本論文特以影像處理技術搭配動態攝影機作臉部追蹤的研究。
在以往的相關研究中多以靜止的攝影機和固定的背景來做追蹤。而我們的研究,是改以動態的攝影機來做人臉的追蹤,並以影像作為系統的回授,修正攝影機的位置。在處理過程中,我們使用膚色(Skin-Color)將人臉從複雜的背景中分離出來,再配合數位影像處理的技巧,找出人臉的所在區域。最後以簡單而快速的橢圓形頭部追蹤演算法,找出人臉的位置,並以此位置來控制馬達的轉動。轉動時,我們設定馬達的轉動機制,讓攝影機所擷取的畫面能更加穩定。目標若超出範圍或消失,馬達將自動的轉回起始位置重新追蹤。使用動態的攝影機追蹤移動中的人臉,目的在於增加攝影機的可視角度,使移動的人臉始終維持在影像的中心位置。
Recently, the technology of image process is greatly improved owing to the high upgrade of computers. The technology can be applied in a variety of applications, such as teleconference, the face recognition and machine vision. For this reason, we study the human face tracking with active camera.
The early relevant researches are limited to static camera and stationary background. In our study, we trace by active camera the human face, as well as the face position in the image which served as the feedback control to revolve motors guiding the camera to correct position. In the process, we use the technology of Skin-Color analysis to segment the human face from complicated background and we also use the technology of digital image processing to find the region of the human face. In the end, we use a simple algorithm to trace the human face by elliptical head tracker to find the position of the face and then to control the motor. We set the rules of motor control in order to stabilize the frames taken by the camera. If the target goes beyond the scope of tracing range or misses from the frame, the motors will turn round to default position and restart the tracing. For the purpose of increasing the angle of view, the active camera is used to trace the moving human face, so that the moving human face always stays around the center of images.
目錄
中文摘要I
英文摘要II
誌謝III
目錄IV
圖目錄VI
第一章序論 1
1.1 前言1
1.2 研究目的3
第二章臉部追蹤之概略4
2.1 簡介4
2.2 人臉特徵判別4
2.2.1 顏色分割(color segmentation)4
2.2.2 動態的偵側6
2.2.3 外形分析7
2.2.4 立體影像7
2.3 臉部特徵與判別方式8
2.4 人臉偵測於靜態影像9
2.5 人臉偵測及追蹤於動態影像10
2.6 方向的判定 13
2.7 討論15
第三章臉部之追蹤16
3.1 簡介17
3.2 影像的前處理(preprocessing)17
3.2.1 Skin Color分析18
3.2.2 Binary Morphologic處理 19
3.2.3 Convex Hull21
3.3 搜尋區域的設定22
3.4 橢圓形頭部追蹤(Elliptical Head Tracker)23
3.5 分析與結果25
第四章 系統硬體27
4.1 系統簡介27
4.2 串列通訊27
4.3 Altera及系統電路簡介29
4.4 訊號處理34
4.5 平台的設計35
4.5.1平台轉動35
4.5.2鏡心位置36
4.5.3轉動限制37
4.6 分析與結果39
第五章 系統架構分析與結果討論40
5.1 系統架構分析40
5.2 結果討論41
第六章 未來展望43
參考資料44
自述46
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Proceedings.International Workshop on , 1999 , Page(s): 77 —82[12] X. Xie; Sudhakar, R.; Hanqi Zhuang ,"Real-time eye feature tracking from a videoimage sequence using Kalman filter ", Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactionson Volume: 25 12 , Dec. 1995 , Page(s): 1568 -1577[13] X. Xie, R. Sudhakar, H.Zhuang, "A cascaded Scheme for Tracking and Head MovementCompensation", IEEE TRANSCATIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, ANDCYBERNETICS-PART A: SYSTEMS AND HUMANS, VOL. 28, NO. 4, JULY 1998[14] Zhang Xin; Xu Yanjun; Du Limin, “Locating facial features with color information”, SignalProcessing Proceedings, 1998. ICSP ''98. 1998 Fourth International Conference on Volume: 2 , 1998 ,Page(s): 889 -892 vol.2[15] Wu, H.; Yokoyama, T.; Pramadihanto, D.; Yachida, M. “Face and facial feature extractionfrom color image”, Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 1996., Proceedings of theSecond International Conference on , 1996 , Page(s): 345 —350[16] Beardsley, P.A., “A qualitative approach to classifying gaze direction”,Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 1998. Proceedings. Third IEEE International Conference on ,1998 , Page(s): 160 —165[17] F.Preteux, M.Malciu, "Model-based head tracking and 3D pose estimation", Proceedings SPIEConference on Mathematical Modeling and Estimation Techniques in Computer Vision, San Diego,CA, Vol. 3457, July 1998, pp. 94-110.[18] Rowley, H.A.; Baluja, S.; Kanade,T, ”Rotation invariant neural network-based face detection”,Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1998. Proceedings. 1998 IEEE Computer Society Conferenceon, 1998, Page(s): 38 —44[19] K. Choong Yow,R. Cipolla, :"Feature-Based Human Face Detection",Department of Engineering, Cambridge[20] S. Birchfield. "Elliptical Head Tracking Using Intensity Gradients and Color Histograms",In IEEE Conf. on computer Vision and Pattern Recognitions, Santa Barara, California, June 1998[21] S. Birchfield." An elliptical head tracker", In Proc. Of the 31st Asilomar Conf. On Signal, Systemsand Computers, 1997[22] Baumberg, A.M.; Hogg, D.C." An efficient method for contour tracking using active shape models",Motion of Non-Rigid and Articulated Objects, 1994., Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE Workshop on , 1994 ,Page(s): 194 —199[23] A. H. Gee and R. Cipolla ,“Fast Visual Tracking by Temporal consensus", CUED/F-INFENG/TR207 February 1995[24] Thanarat Horprasert, Yaser Yacoob, and Larry S. Davis, "An Anthropometric Shape Modelfor Estimating Head Orientation", 3rd International Workshop on Visual Form, Capri,Italy, May 1997.[25] K. Toyama and G.Haga. 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