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研究生:洪宗銘
研究生(外文):Tsung-Ming Hung
論文名稱:三對三足球機器員競賽之設計與實現
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of a Three-on-Three Soccer Robot Competition
指導教授:李祖聖
指導教授(外文):Tzuu-Hseng S. Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:足球機器員
外文關鍵詞:RoboCuprobot soccer
相關次數:
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本論文係探討三對三足球機器員系統之設計與實現。整個足球機器員競賽可視為一視覺回授控制系統。架設在足球場地上方的攝影機負責擷取影像,藉由影像分析後可獲得敵我動態。主電腦考慮場上狀況後,決定所行戰術並經由無線模組下達相對應命令。機器人接收命令並即時執行,進而完成進攻和防守等策略。本論文首先介紹所提出之足球機器員競賽系統,以及詳述影像系統之流程,其中包括前、後置處理與色塊分析,並提出攻防策略與以場為基礎之控制器,最後實際進行三對三足球機器員競賽。電腦模擬與實驗結果說明了所製作設計之機器足球員系統的效益與可行性。
This thesis is devoted to designing and implementing a three-on-three robot soccer system, which can be considered as a visual servoing system. According to the analysis of the image captured by the CCD camera mounted above the field, the status of the play will be all obtained. The host computer takes the information into consideration, decides the appropriate strategy, and then sends the corresponding command to the soccer robots via wireless modem. Based on the instruction from the host computer, the robot will perform a suitable action immediately. In this thesis, the structure of the proposed robot soccer system is firstly introduced. The procedures of the vision system are also addressed in detail, including of the image preprocessing, blob analysis, and the future processing. Then, the attacking and defending strategies and the motion control of the robot are described. Finally, a real three-on-three robot soccer game is performed. The efficiency and feasibility of the proposed system are demonstrated by computer simulations and the practical experiments.
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Thesis Organization 2
Chapter 2. Overview of the Robot Soccer System 4
2.1 Introduction 4
2.2 Overview of Robot Soccer Game 5
2.3 Robot Soccer System 6
2.4 Hardware Specification of Vision and Strategy Decision System 7
2.4.1 CCD Camera 7
2.4.2 Image Grabbing Card 8
2.4.3 Host Computer 9
2.5 Wireless Communication System 9
2.6 Hardware Architecture of the Soccer Robot 13
2.6.1 Architecture of Soccer Robot 17
2.6.2 Battery Module 17
2.6.3 Voltage Regulator Module 18
2.6.4 Control Unit Module 18
2.6.5 Steering Motor Driver Module 19
2.6.6 Kicking Device Motor Driver Module 20
2.6.7 DC Motor Module 21
2.7 Summary 21
Chapter 3. Vision System 22
3.1 Introduction 22
3.2 Overview of the Vision System 23
3.3 Image Capture and Preparation Sub-system 25
3.3.1 Application Initialization Module 25
3.3.2 Color Model Choosing Module 26
3.3.3 Field Separating Module 28
3.4 Image Processing Sub-system 30
3.4.1 Image Segmentation Module 31
3.4.2 Global Windowing Blob Analysis Module 33
3.4.3 Local Windowing Blob Analysis Module 35
3.5 Robot Orientation and Identification Sub-system 35
3.5.1 Robot Orientation Module 36
3.5.2 Robot Identification Module 37
3.6 Summary 38
Chapter 4. Strategy Decision System 39
4.1 Introduction 39
4.2 Basic Behaviors of the Soccer Robot 40
4.2.1 General Soccer Robot 40
4.2.2 Goalkeeper Robot 43
4.3 Strategies 44
4.3.1 Attacker 45
4.3.2 Defender 46
4.3.3 Goalkeeper 47
4.4 Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance Using Vector Field Method 47
4.5 Kinematic Model of the Soccer Robot 51
4.6 Proportional Control 53
4.7 Summary 55
Chapter 5. Simulation and Implementation 56
5.1 Introduction 56
5.2 Computer Simulation 57
5.2.1 Static Point Tracking 57
5.2.2 Dynamic Point Tracking 57
5.3 User Interface 63
5.4 Practical Pictures 64
5.5 A Three-on-Three Robot Soccer Game 71
Chapter 6. Conclusion and Future Works 76
6.1 Conclusion 76
6.2 The Future Works 77
6.2.1 The Hardware Part 77
6.2.2 The Software Part 77
References 78
Biography 81
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[11]A. Agah and K. Tanie, “Robots Playing to Win: Evolutionary Soccer Strategies,” IEEE International Conf. On Robotics and Automation, Vol.1, pp. 632-637, 1997
[12]H. S. Kim, H. S. Shim, M. J. Jung and J. H. Kim, “Action Selection Mechanism for Soccer Robot,” CIRA’97., Proceedings., IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in robotics and Automation, pp. 390-395, 1997.
[13]A. Agah, B. Doyle, M. Drees, C. Froehlich and K. Kuok, “Robot Soccer for the Study of Learning and Coordination Issues in Multi-agent Systems,” 1998 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 4, pp. 3520-3525, 1998.
[14]R. C. Gonzales and R. E. Woods. Digital Image Processing. Addison-Wesley, 1992.
[15]C. A. Lai, “Design of Fuzzy Field Control for a One-on-One Robot Soccer System,” Master Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung Univ., Taiwan, R.O.C., June, 2001.
[16]J. Barraquand, J. C. Latombe, “Robot motion planning: a distributed representation approach”, International Journal Automation, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1991.
[17]J. Guldner, V. I. Utiken, H. Hashimoto and F. Harashima, “Tracking gradients of artificial potential fields with non-holonomic mobile robots”, submitted to ACC, 1995.
[18]R. C. Arkin. Behavior-Based Robotics. The MIT Press, 1998.
[19]J. H. Kim, A booklet on MIROSOT’96 (Micro-Robot World Cup Soccer Tournament), MIROSOT Organizing Committee, 1996.
[20]Instruction Manual, VK-C77U Color Video Camera, HITACHI, Ltd. 1996.
[21]User’s Manual: Matrox Meteor-Ⅱ Installation and Hardware Reference, Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd., 2000.
[22]User’s Manual: SST-2400 Radio Modem Module, ICP DAS 1999.
[23]TMS320F/C24x DSP Controllers Reference Guide: CPU and Instruction Set, Texas Instruments, 1999.
[24]K. T. Song; C. C. Tang, “A Distributed Architecture for Effective Multirobot Cooperation in Team Competitions,” Proceedings. The 25th Annual Conference of the IEEE , Industrial Electronics Society, IECON '99, Vol. 2 , pp. 547 -552, 1999.
[25]User Guide: Matrox Imaging Library, Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd., Canada, 1998.
[26]K. H. Park, Y. J. Kim, and J. H. Kim, “Modular Q-learning based multi-angent cooperation for robot soccer,” Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 2, pp. 1556 –1561, 2002
[27]B. J. Lee, S. O. Lee, and G-T Park, “Trajectory generation and motion tracking control for the robot soccer game,” 1999 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vol. 2, pp. 1149 –1154, 1999
[28]Elon Rimon, “Exact Robot Navigation Using Artificial Potential Functions,” IEEE Trans. On Robotics and Automation, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 501-518, Oct. 1992.
[29]H. S. Shim, H. S. Kim, M. J. Jung, I. H. Choi, J. H. Kim and J. O. Kim, “Designing Distributed Control Architecture for Cooperative Multi-Agent System and It’s Real-Time Application to Soccer Robot,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, pp. 149-165, 1997.
[30]I. F. Lin, “Design and Implementation of a One-on-One Robot Soccer Game,” Master Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C., June 2001.
[31]Y. Z. Guo, “Design and Implement Ring Potential Field Method for a Three-on-Three Robot Soccer Game,” Master Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C., June 2002.
[32]K. J. Lu, “Development and Implementation of Real-Time Visual Servoing System for Multi Agent Soccer Robot Systems,” Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., June 2001.
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