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研究生:張穎文
研究生(外文):Ying-Wen Chang
論文名稱:可調性視訊品質與位元串流相關性之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Video Bit-stream Arrangement for SNR Scalability
指導教授:戴顯權戴顯權引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shen-Chuan Tai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:視訊串流可調性小波
外文關鍵詞:video streamingFine Granular ScalabilitySNR Scalabilitywavelet
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可調性視訊品質與位元串流相關性之研究
張穎文* 戴顯權**
國立成功大學電機工程研究所
摘要
隨著網際網路技術日漸成熟,透過網際網路傳送即時影音資訊也日益受到重視。由於網際網路上可用頻寬會隨著時間而有不同的變動,在這個需求下能夠適應網路頻寬變動的可調性視訊編碼方式及彈性的串流策略便越顯重要。
在本論文中,我們提出一個以小波為基礎的可調性視訊編碼方式。在編碼端,編碼器將餘值係數編碼成數個增強階層的位元串流。位元串流可以視網路頻寬的需求而任意地捨棄某些部分。將餘值影像經小波轉換後,重新排列成小波區塊的形式,這些小波區塊依據其重要性區分成三類並保留不同比例的餘值係數。我們提出二種編碼方式,第一種是利用重要係數鏈結的概念來編碼,而另一種是依照上述分類時保留係數的特性來編碼係數。
解碼端將收到的增強層位元串流與基礎層位元串流一起產生較佳的重建視訊。根據實驗結果,在PSNR方面加入增強層後所產生的重建視訊將比只有基礎層所產生的重建視訊提升至2.5 dB。另外本文中所提出的方法與MPEG-4標準FGS相比較,結果顯示PSNR提升0.5 dB。

*作者 **指導教授
A Study on Video Bit-stream Arrangement for SNR Scalability
Ying-Wen Chang* Shen-Chuan Tai**
Department of Electrical Engineering
National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC
Abstract
There is a requirement for scalable video coding methods and flexible streaming approaches that are able to adapt changing network conditions in real time.
In this Thesis, a scalable video coding based on wavelet scheme is proposed. On the encoding side, scalable video encoder encodes these predictive residual coefficients into several layers of bit-stream. The bitstream of enhancement layer is truncated at different bit-rate depending on the network bandwidth. The residual image is reordered to form wavelet blocks. Wavelet blocks are classified into three types and the most significant coefficients in each type of block are preserved. After preserving coefficients, two encoding methods are applied. The first method encodes the significant coefficients using the concept of significant link. In the second method, the coefficients are encoded into the bitstream according to previous classification types. On the decoding side, the bit-stream of enhancement layer is combined with the bit-stream of base layer to get better quality of reconstructed video. In our simulation, the PSNR of the reconstructed video with the enhancement layers will be enhanced up to 2.5 dB than the reconstructed video with only the base layer bitstream. Furthermore, the proposed method outperforms the result of MPEG-4 FGS about 0.5 dB in terms of PSNR.
*The Author **The Advisor
CONTENTS i
LIST OF TABLES iii
LIST OF FIGURES iv

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1

CHAPTER 2 Scalability in MPEG Standards 4
2.1 Scalable Coding in MPEG-2 4
2.2 SNR Scalability 7
2.3 Temporal Scalability 9
2.4 Spatial Scalability 10
2.5 Scalable Coding in MPEG-4 (FGS) 12
2.5.1 Bit-Plane Shift 15
2.5.1.1 Frequency Weighting 16
2.5.1.2 Selective Enhancement 16
2.5.2 Bit-Plane Variable Length Coding 17
2.5.3 Decoding Truncated Bitstreams 18
2.6 Variations to the FGS Standardized Coding Structure 18
2.7 Progressive Fine Granularity Scalable Coding Structure 20

CHAPTER 3 DWT Compression 24
3.1 Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) 24
3.2 Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW) 26
3.3 Set Partition In Hierarchical Tree (SPIHT) 29
3.4 Significance-Linked Connected Component Analysis (SLCCA) 33
3.4.1 Description of SLCCA Algorithm 33
3.4.2 Formation of Connected Components within Subbands 35

CHAPTER 4 The Proposed Algorithm 39
4.1 An overview of the Algorithm 39
4.2 Feature of Wavelet Residue 40
4.3 Proposed Algorithm 42
4.3.1 Reorganized Wavelet Block 43
4.3.2 Classification 44
4.3.3 Quantization 47
4.3.4 Separating Layers 48
4.3.5 Encoding Method (I) 49
4.3.6 Encoding Method (II) 53
4.4 Simulation Results 55

CHAPTER 5 Simulation Results 56
5.1 Simulation Environment 56
5.2 Experiments on Video Sequence 57

CHAPTER 6 Conclusions 68

REFERENCES 69
PUBLICATION LIST 74
BIOGRAPHY 75
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