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研究生:陳瀅如
研究生(外文):Ying-Ru Chen
論文名稱:MPEG-2視訊上的強健性及易碎性浮水印
論文名稱(外文):Robust and Fragile Watermarking in MPEG-2 Videos
指導教授:戴顯權戴顯權引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shen-Chan Tai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:強健性易碎性密碼浮水印視訊
外文關鍵詞:WaveletMPEG-2FragileAESRobustWatermarkVideoDESHVS
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本論文提出了一個能夠兼顧保謢原作者的智慧財產權及使用者權益的數位浮水印系統。我們將原作者的識別資料放在未經MPEG-2視訊壓縮的畫面的Y空間中,將保護編碼後的MPEG-2視訊完整的資料放在MPEG-2位元串的動作向量中。一般在視訊資料上的浮水印並無法同時達到強健性及易碎性的要求。我們提出的強健性浮水印演算法,經人類視覺系統的輔助加入於畫面小波轉換後的係數中;而保謢視訊完整的資料則是使用密碼加密後再放入特定巨方塊的動作向量中。實驗證明,我們的強健性浮水印能有效抵抗各種有意的攻擊,例如:影片重新重新壓製、畫面裁剪、畫面加入雜訊、畫面模糊化、畫面銳利化、使用濾波器過濾畫面。另外,任何改變視訊內容的方式皆會使得動作向量產生變化而破壞了易碎性浮水印,藉由無法偵測出易碎性浮水印對使用者發出此影片已遭破壞的訊息。
This Thesis brings up a digital watermarking system that can protect the author’s intellectual property rights (IPR) and the user’s right at the same time. We embed the author’s identification data into the Y component of the uncompressed video sequence and hide the data, which is used to protect the compressed MEPG-2 video, into motion vectors in MEPG-2 bitstream. Traditional video watermarking method cannot reach the requirements of robustness and fragility at the same time. Our robust watermarking is assisted by HVS and embedded into the wavelet coefficients of the frame. The watermark, which is used to protect the completeness of the video, is first encrypted by cryptology and then hided into certain macroblocks’ motion vectors. The simulation results show that our robust watermark can against intentional attacks, such as video sequence recompression, frame blurring, frame cropping, frame noising, frame sharpening, and frame filtering. Additionally, any video content modification would change the motion vectors and destroy the fragile watermarks. When fragile watermark detection process cannot detect fragile watermarks, system alarms the users the video is destroyed by some pirates.
List of Tables i
List of Figures ii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Background Information 3
2.1 Why Watermarking? 3
2.2 Introduction to Mpeg System 5
2.2.1 Intra-frame DCT Coding 8
2.2.2 Quantization 9
2.2.3 Entropy Encoding 10
2.2.4 Motion-compensated intra-frame prediction 10
2.2.5 Picture types 11
2.2.6 Details of levels 14
2.3 A Brief Review of Digital Wavelet Transform and Human Visual System 15
2.3.1 The Definition of Digital Wavelet Transform 15
2.3.2 What is Human Visual System? 17
2.4 A Brief Review of Cryptography 18
2.4.1 Public Key System 18
2.4.2 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm 20
Chapter 3 State of Art in Digital Watermarking 23
3.1 Image and Video Watermarking Requirements 23
3.2 Reason for our research 26
Chapter 4 Proposed Algorithm for Robust and Fragile Watermarking 28
4.1 Robust Watermarking 28
4.1.1 Watermark Generation 29
4.1.2 Watermark Embedding 30
4.1.3 Watermark Detection 32
4.1.4 Simulation Results 35
4.2 Fragile Watermarking 48
4.2.1 Watermark Generation 49
4.2.2 Watermark Embedding 50
4.2.3 Watermark Extraction 53
4.2.4 Simulation Results 54
4.3 Combining Robust and Fragile Watermarking 56
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Discussion 60
5.1 Conclusions 60
5.2 Future Research 60
References 62
Appendices 65
Publication List 71
Biography 72
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[15]J. J. K. O Ruanaidh, W. J. Dowling, and F. M. Boland. “Watermarking digital images for copyright protection,” IEE Proceeding on Vision Signal and Image Processing, Vol.143 No. 4, pp. 250-256, Aug. 1996.
[16]I. Cox, J. Killian, T. Leighton, and T. Shamoon, “Secure spread spectrum watermarking for images, audio and video,” In Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf. On Image Processing ICIP-96, Lauanne, Switzerland, pp. 243-246, Sept. 16-19 1996.
[17]S. Pereira, J. J. K. O. Ruanaidh, F. Deguillaume, G. Csurka, and T. Pun, “Template based recovery of Fourier-based watermarks using Log-polar and Log-log maps,” The International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, Special Session on Multimedia Data Security and Watermarking, June 7-11, Florence, Italy, 1999.
[18]J. F. Delaigle, C. De Vleeschouwer, and B. Macq, “Digital Watermarking,” In Conference 2659- Optical Security and Counterfeit Deterrence Techniques, San Jose, February 1996. SPIE Electronic Imaging: Science and Technology, pp. 99-110.
[19]A. Z. Tirkel, G. A. Rankin, R. G. Vanschyndel, W. J. Ho, N. R. A. Mee, and C. F. Osborne, “Electronic watermark,” In Dicta-93 Macquarie University, Sydney, pp. 666-672, Dec. 1993.
[20]F. Hartung and B. Girod, “Watermarking of uncompressed and compressed video,” Signal Processing, Vol. 66, pp. 283-301, 1998.
[21]B. Zhu M. D. Swanson and A. H. Tewfik, “Multiresolution scene-based video watermarking using perceptual models,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 540-550, May 1998.
[22]G. C. Langelaar, R. L. Lagendijk, and J. Biemond, “Real-time labeling methods for MPEG compressed video,” In Proc. 18th Symp. Information Theory in the Benelux, Veldhoven, The Netherlands, May 1997.
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[24]Mauro Barni, Franco Bartolini, and Alessandro Piva, “Improved wavelet-based watermarking through pixel-wise masking,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 783-791, May 2001.
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[27]Jie Song and K. J. R. Liu, “A data embedding scheme for H.263 compatible video coding,” IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS'99), Vol. 4, pp. 390-393, Orlando, Florida, June 1999.
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