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研究生:吉正然
研究生(外文):Cheng-Jan Chi
論文名稱:使用混成模式的Sprite產生器
論文名稱(外文):A Hybrid Model for Sprite Generation
指導教授:陳進興陳進興引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Hsing Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:全域動態預測影像
外文關鍵詞:Global Motion EstimationMPEG-4Image MosaicingSprite
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本篇論文中,我們改良MPEG-4 Optimize Model中的Sprite演算法以提升演算速度及品質。主要改進項目如下:快速影像變形 (Fast Image Warping),混成模式全域動態預測 (Hybrid Model Global Motion Estimation),以及模式選擇器 (Adaptive Model Switching)。

快速影像變形將原先所用的雙線性內插(Bilinear Interpolation)改為最近鄰點內插(Nearest Neighborhood Interpolation)。混成模式全域動態預測則提升影像的品質與精度,所產生的Sprite品質優於或略等於原先使用雙線性內插的影像。而模式選擇器則自動選擇最適當的模式,可以進一步節省運算時間,並省去不必要的資料傳輸量。

實驗使用四組測試影像,其中兩組將畫面順序倒反播放。實驗結果顯示,影像中的攝影機運動越複雜,影像品質的改良越大,而演算速度則保持1.7倍或是約略相等的水平。
A novel sprite generator, base on Yan Lu’s work in MPEG-4 Optimized Model (MPEG-4 OM), is presented in the thesis. Three improvements are included in the generator: fast image warping, hybrid model global motion estimation (GME) and adaptive switching.

To accelerate the speed of image warping, a simpler interpolation kernel is used. The bilinear interpolation kernel is replaced by nearest neighborhood (NN) kernel. Hybrid model GME is used to enhance the image quality and estimation accuracy. With hybrid model GME, the sprite generated with NN kernel has equal or even better quality compared with those generated with Yan Lu’s method. The adaptive switching chooses the proper GME model frame by frame. It saves the computation time and the transmission data rate.

Four test sequences are used to test the new generator. Two of the sequences are reversed frame by frame. The experimental results show that the image quality is improved more if the camera operations are more complex and faster. The computation speed is 1.7 times faster or equal to the OM generator.
Contents

Contents i
Abstract in Chinese iii
Abstract v
List of figures vii

Chapter1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Related Work 2
1.3 Thesis Organization 4

Chapter2 Sprite Generation 6
2.1 Overview 6
2.2 Image Resampling 7
2.3 Spatial Image Transformations 12
2.4 Sprite Generators 16

Chapter3 Global Motion Estimation 18
3.1 Newton Method 18
3.2 Image Mosaicing 19
3.3 Initial Conditions – 3-step matching 21
3.4 Hierarchical Matching 22

Chapter4 Hybrid Model Sprite Generator 24
4.1 Sprite Generator in MPEG-4 OM 24
4.2 Proposed System 32
4.3 Fast Image Warping 33
4.4 Hybrid Model Global Motion Estimation 35
4.5 Adaptive Model Switch 38

Chapter5 Experimental Results 40
5.1 Computation Time 41
5.2 Sprite Image Quality 43
5.3 Sprite Size 52
5.4 GME Parameters 56

Summary and Future Work 77
Reference 79
Glossary 82
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2. Yan Lu, Wen Gao, Feng Wu, Hanqing Lu and Xilin Chen, “A Robust Offline Sprite Generation Approach”, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG01/m6778, January 2001
3. ISO/IEC WG11 MPEG Video Group, “Optimization Model Ver.3.0”, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 N4057, Singapore, March 2001
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9. Wu Feng; Gao Wen; Xiang YangZhao; Gao Peng; Chen DaTong, “On-line sprite encoding with large global motion estimation”. Data Compression Conference,DCC '98. Proceedings , 1998
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12. Ming-Chieh Lee, Wei-ge Chen, and Chih-lung Bruce Lin, “A Layered Video Object Coding System Using Sprite and Affine Motion Model”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1997
13. Jinzenji, K.; Okada, S.; Watanabe, H.; Kobayashi, N., “Automatic two-layer video object plane generation scheme and its application to MPEG-4 video coding”, The 2000 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2000. Proceedings. ISCAS 2000 Geneva, Volume: 3 ,Page(s): 606 -609 vol.3
14. George Wolberg, ”Digital Image Warping”, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1992
15. William H. Press, Saul A.Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling, Brian P.Flannery, “Numerical Recipes in C”, Cambridge University Press,1992
16. Yan Lu, Wen Gao, Hanqing Lu and Xilin Chen, “A Fast and Robust Sprite Generation Tool for MPEG-4 Video Coding”, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG01/M7096, February 2001
17. Zixiang Xiong, Tihao Chiang, and Ya-Qin Zhang,“Global motion compensation for low bitrate video coding”, IEEE First Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, 1997., 1997 , Page(s)195 -200
18. Milan S. ,Vaclav H.Roger .B, “Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision”, PWS publishing. 1998
19. K. R. RAO and J. J. HWANG, “Techniques and Standards for Image, Video, and Audio Coding”, Prentice Hall PTR, 1996
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21. King N. Ngan, Thomas Meier and Douglas Chai, “Advanced Video Coding: Principles and Techniques”, Elsevier,1999
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