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研究生(外文):Chuen-Huo Wang
論文名稱(外文):A distributed Linux cluster server system with fault-tolerant ability
指導教授(外文):Yu-Kuen Ho
外文關鍵詞:fault-tolerantcluster serverRR-DNS
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  由於網際網路的盛行,為了應付熱門網站龐大的網路連線,採用多台計算機構成之叢集伺服器系統來分擔負載是一可行的辦法。而在分散式叢集伺服器系統設計上,由美國波士頓大學Azer Bestavros所提出之分散式封包重寫(DPR, Distributed Packet Rewriting)技術則被廣泛加以討論著。此分散式叢集伺服器系統中會採用領域名稱服務輪詢系統(RR-DNS, Round-Robin Domain Name System)來實現,但由於領域名稱服務輪詢系統是種階層式架構,且為了增進效率而有著快取的行為,所以較容易導致系統上動態負載失調;此外當某台伺服器因故障而當機候,遠端客戶端假如果還是利用原先所快取住的舊資訊來連線的話,可能就會導致錯誤連線的結果。因此,如何改善這些問題是一個值得研究的課題。
  在分散式系統中利用領域名稱服務輪詢系統所產生的負載不平衡,可利用負載平衡演算法來加以改善。而對於產生之連線錯誤則需錯誤容忍之機制來克服。在本論文中我們提出了一個鏈狀夥伴(chain- buddy)之容錯法:此容錯法可讓在同一子網域的每台伺服器各自去監視另外一台伺服器的狀態,而形成一個鏈狀監管拓樸架構。當系統中某台伺服器無法提供服務的時候,負責接管它的伺服器會馬上去接收它的IP位址及提供原先的服務,而一旦故障的伺服器恢復時,再歸還原先的IP位址,以達到容錯效果。
  With the explosive growth of the Internet, some popular web sites use cluster server for tens of thousands of hits per second. To build high performance Web Servers, designers tends to distributed systems. The DPR(Distributed Packet Rewriting)system proposed by Azer Bestavros raises a great discussion. The DPR system uses RR-DNS(Round-Robin Domain Name System) for distribute requests , but brings some problems – dynamic load imbalance and probable connection error.
  To solve the issue of connection load imbalance, we can use appropriate load balanc-
ing algorithm for every incoming packets. To avoid the probable connection error caused by RR-DNS, our essay proposes a chain-buddy way with fault-tolerant ability:every server in the same subnet monitors its buddy to check if it is dead or not and the circumstance forms the chain topology. When there is a broken-down server occurred in this system, the one who takes over it gets its IP address and continues the original service which it supports. Once the broken-down server recovers, the one who takes over it return its IP address and the system achieves the fault-tolerant effect.
  To verify the correctness, we use the simulation benchmark software – httperf which develops by HP company. The experiment shows that the DPR system with load balancing algorithm and chain-buddy way has the feature of high performance and can remove the shortcomings derived by RR-DNS , that it becomes a distributed fault-tolerant system
1.簡介 5
2.背景知識 7
  2.1 TCP/IP通訊協定 7
  2.2 叢集伺服器系統 10
    2.2.1 集中式系統 11
    2.2.2 分散式系統 12
    2.2.3 IPIP通道技術 13
    2.2.4領域名稱服務輪詢系統 14
  2.3 容錯系統介紹 16
    2.7.1 IBM SP-2系統 16
    2.7.2 Cisco’s LocalDirector系統 17
    2.7.3 Linux虛擬伺服器系統 18
  2.4 負載平衡演算法 20
3.分散式鏈狀夥伴容錯系統 22
  3.1 分散式封包重寫技術 22
    3.1.1 IPIP通道封裝 24
    3.1.2路由驗證問題解決 26
  3.2 鏈狀夥伴容錯系統 27
    3.2.1鏈狀監管拓樸架構 27
    3.2.2伺服器鏈狀監管之狀態與處理程序 28
    3.2.3鏈狀夥伴容錯演算法 32
4.效能分析 33
  4.1單機伺服器與叢集伺服器效能比較 33
    4.1.1實驗環境的架設 33
    4.1.2測試工具 34
    4.1.3效率評估 35
  4.2動態不平衡影響的情況之測試 38
  4.3高可用性容錯效果之測試 40
  4.4優缺點分析 42
5.結論 43

參考文獻 44
附錄 48
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[3]A.Bestavros et al., “Distributed Packet Rewriting and its Application to Scalable Server Architectures,“ Proceedings of the international Conference on Network Protocols, Austin Texas, pp.290-297(October 1998)

[4]Cisco System Inc. “Failover Configuration for LocalDirector,” Cisco System White Paper– http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/cxsr/400/tech/locdf_wp.htm

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[7] Chu-Sing Yang; Mon-Yen Luo , “Building an adaptable, fault tolerant, and highly manageable web server on clusters of non-dedicated workstations,” Parallel Processing, 2000. Proceedings. 2000 International Conference on , 2000 Page(s): 413 –420

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[11] T. Brisco “DNS Support for Load Balancing”, Network Working Group ,RFC1794 http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1794.html

[12] C.Perkins ,”IETF RFC2003:IP Encapsulation within IP”, Available from ftp://turtle.ee.ncku.edu.tw/pub/documents/rfc/rfc2003.txt

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Web Server” Compcon '96. 'Technologies for the Information Superhighway' Digest of Papers , 1996 Page(s): 85 -92

[14] Rusty Russell, “Linux 2.4 Packet Filtering HOWTO” , available from http://www.linux.org.tw/CLDP/Packet-Filtering-HOWTO.html,2000

[15]G.Wright and W.R.Stevens ,TCP/IP Illustrated,Volume 1, Addison-Weley,Reading, May 1994

[16] Mon project:http://www.kernel.org/software/mon/

[17] fake Project:http://www.vergenet.net/linux/fake/

[18] HeartBeat project:http://www.linux-ha.org/

[19] David Mosberger , Tai Jin,”Httperf-A Tool for
Measuring Web serve performance ”, HP Research Labs,Available from http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/David_Mosberger/

[20] http://www.linux-vs.org/HighAvailability.html

[21]Linux Virtual Server Projects :http://www.linux-vs.org/

[22]IBM Corporation. The IBM Interactive Network Dispatcher. See http://www7.scu.edu.au/programme/fullpapers/1899/com1899.htm

[23] T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding and H. Frystyk, “Hypertext Transfer Protocol –1.0”


[25] Cisco Systems. “Scaling the Internet Web Servers”. A white paper available from

[26] http://www.apache.org/

[27] http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/

[28] 連結共享儲存設備http://www.linux.org.tw/CLDP/High-Availability-HOWTO/High-Availability-HOWTO-7.html#chg-ultra-scsi

[29] ASPAC計畫, “Gnuplot導讀”,中央研究院計算中心,available from ftp: ftp://phi.sinica.edu.tw/pub/aspac/doc/95/95006.ps

[30] 許順興,何裕琨,”利用最少工作量與連線數演算法作動態負載平衡之Linux叢集伺服器“ national computer Symposium,2001Page(I212-I220)
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