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研究生:黃健瑋
研究生(外文):Chien-Wei Huang
論文名稱:IEEE802.11a無線區域網路於實體層之系統設計與韌體實現
論文名稱(外文):The System Design and Firmware Implementationon Physical Layer of IEEE 802.11a Wireless LAN
指導教授:蘇賜麟
指導教授(外文):Szu-Lin Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:數位訊號處理無線區域網路同步無線通訊
外文關鍵詞:DSPWireless LANWLANsynchronization802.11
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由於無線數據通訊的蓬勃發展,無線區域網路也因著其高速傳輸的特性因應而生,本篇論文將著重於設計一組符合IEEE 802.11a標準的基頻傳送接收機制。由於實體層的調變技術乃使用正交分頻多工,所以其傳統上會發生的問題,諸如時脈與載波的同步、過大峰對均值的克服等技術都將被分析與解決。從工作站SPW模擬的成果證明使用個人所設計的同步機制不但在白色高斯雜訊的通道下有不錯的性能曲線,而且在無線的多路徑衰退通道下的封包及位元錯誤率也能符合期盼。
除了分析與模擬外,硬體實現是最後的重頭戲,為了考驗所設計的同步演算法在即時的通訊環境也能正常運作,採用德州儀器公司所生產的數位訊號處理器TMS320C6711配合週邊電路完成了一對傳送接收之雛型數據機。可以想像這比分析模擬更具有挑戰性!


Owing to the rapidly development of wireless data communication, wireless LAN with its high speed transmission is also proposed, then this thesis focuses on the design of a baseband transceiver conforming with the IEEE 802.11a standard. Due to the using of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing on physical layer, some traditional issues such as the recovery of timing clock and carrier frequency, immoderate peak to average power ratio will be analyzed and solve. From the simulation results of SPW, the synchronization solutions one designs not only have superior performance on AWGN channel, but also its PER and BER could be expected on wireless multipath fading channel.
In addition to analysis and simulation, hardware implementation is the last emphasis. For testing the designed synchronization algorithm could well work at real time communication environment, one adopt the TI TMS320C6711 and some peripheral circuits to complete an embryo modem. These give more challenge than simulation!


Abstracti
Contentsii
List of Tablesiv
List of Figuresv
Chapter Page
Chapter 1 Introducation..............1
1.1 Overview of Wireless Local Area Networks…………………1
1.2 Applications for OFDM …………………………………………3
1.3 the Outlines………………………………………………………5
Chapter 2 System Description for Wireless LAN ..........7
2.1 OFDM Principles …………………………………………………7
2.1.1 OFDM Modulation ………………………………………………7
2.1.2 Guard Time and Cyclic Prefix………………………………9
2.2 IEEE 802.11a Specification……………………………………13
2.2.1 Basic Parameters………………………………………………13
2.2.2 Frame Formats …………………………………………………14
2.2.3 Channelization…………………………………………………16
2.3 Wireless Channel Environment…………………………………18
2.3.1 Fading and Multipath Propagation…………………………18
2.3.2 Indoor Radio Channel Model…………………………………22
Chapter 3 Synchronization Analysis for OFDM ............25
3.1 Synchronization Issues for OFDM ……………………………25
3.1.1 Effects of Phase Noise………………………………………26
3.1.2 Effects of Carrier Frequency Offset ……………………27
3.1.3 Effects of Timing Errors……………………………………29
3.1.4 Integrated Effects of Synchronization Issues…………31
3.2 Synchronization Methods for OFDM……………………………35
3.2.1 Using Cyclic Prefix …………………………………………36
3.2.2 Using Training Sequences……………………………………38
3.2.3 Using Pilots on Each OFDM Symbol…………………………40
Chapter 4 Transceiver Design of IEEE 802.11a on Baseband........45
4.1 Design of the Indoor Wireless Channel ……………………45
4.2 System Design of the Transmitter……………………………48
4.3 System Design of the Receiver ………………………………48
4.2.1 Packet Detection………………………………………………49
4.2.2 Carrier Frequency Offset Acquisition……………………50
4.2.3 Symbol Timing Decision………………………………………53
4.2.4 Channel Estimation……………………………………………55
4.2.5 Synchronization Tracking……………………………………59
4.2.6 Simulation Results……………………………………………66
Chapter 5 Firmware Design and Implementation
5.1 Introduction to TMS320C6711 DSP ……………………………71
5.1.1 General Description …………………………………………72
5.1.2 Key Features……………………………………………………74
5.1.3 Timer and Interrupt …………………………………………76
5.2 Hardware Architecture of OFDM Modem ………………………78
5.3 Program Structure of OFDM Modem ……………………………84
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work
6.1 Conclusions ………………………………………………………87
6.2 Future work ………………………………………………………88
Bibliography……………………………………………………………91


[1] IEEE 802.11, “Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications” IEEE Std 802.11a-1999.[2] Richard van Nee, Ramjee Prasad, “OFDM Wireless Multimedia Communications”, Artech House, Boston-London, 2000.[3] Bernard Sklar, Communications Engineering Services, ”Rayleigh Fading Channels in Mobile Digital Communication Systems Part1: Characterization”, IEEE Comm. Magazine, Sep. 1997.[4] Timothy M. Schmidl and Donald C. Cox, “Robust Frequency and Timing Synchronization for OFDM”, IEEE Trans. Commun., VOL. 45, No.12, Dec, 1997.[5] Meng-Han Hsieh and Che-Ho Wei, “A Low-Complexity Frame Synchronization and Frequency Offset Compensation Scheme for OFDM Systems over Fading Channels”, IEEE Trans. Veh.Technol., VOL. 48, No. 5, SEP. 1999.[6] Marco Luise and Ruggiannini, “Carrier Frequency Acquisition and Tracking for OFDM Systems”, IEEE Trans. Commun., VOL. 44, No.11, NOV, 1996.[7] Taka shi WAKUTSU and Mutsumu SERIZAWA, “A Carrier Frequency Offset and Timing Offset Detection Scheme for OFDM Systems Utilizing Pilot Sub-Carriers”, IEICE Trans. Commun., VOL.E83-B, No. 8, AUG, 2000.[8] Thomas Keller, Lorenzo Piazzo, Paolo Mandarini, and Lajos Hanzo,”Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Synchronization Techniques for Frequency-Selective Fading Channels”, IEEE JSAC. Commun., VOL. 19, No.6, JUNE, 2001.[9] Gerard J.M. Janssen, Patrick A. Stigter, and Ramjee Prasad, “wideband Indoor Channel measurements and BER analysis of Frequency Selective Multipath Channels at 2.4, 4.75, and 11.5GHz”, IEEE Trans. Commun., VOL. 44, No.10, OCT, 1996.[10] P.H. Moose, “A Technique for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Frequency Offset Correction”, IEEE Trans. Commun., VOL. 42, OCT, 1994.[11] Hiroshi NOGAMI and Toshio NAGAAHIMA, “A Frequency and Timing Period Acquisition Technique for OFDM Systems”, IEICE Trans. Commun., VOL.E78-B, No. 8, AUG, 1996.[12] Karen Halford and Mark Webster, “Multipath Measurement in wireless LANs”, Intersil, Application Note, AN9895, May 2000.[13] Takeshi ONIZAWA, Masato MIZOGUCHI, Masahiro MORIKURA, Toshiaki TANAKA, “A Fast Synchronization Scheme of OFDM Signals for High-Rate Wireless LAN”, IEICE Trans. Commun., VOL.E82-B, No. 2, FEB, 1999.[14] Takeshi ONIZAWA, Masato MIZOGUCHI, Masahiro MORIKURA, Toshiaki TANAKA, “A Novel Channel Estimation Scheme Employing Adaptive Selection of Frequency-Domain Filters for OFDM Systems”, IEICE Trans. Commun., VOL.E82-B, No. 12, DEC, 1999.[15] Dong-Seon Han, Jae-Hyun Seo and Jung-Jin Kim, “Fast Carrier Frequency Offset Compensation in OFDM Systems”, IEEE Trans.Consumer, VOL. 47, No.3, AUG, 2001.[16] Dong Kyu Kim, Sang Hyun Do, Hong Bae Cho, Hyung Jin Choi, Ki Bum Kim, “a New Joint Algorithm of Symbol Timing Recovery and Sampling Clock Adjustment for OFDM systems”, IEEE Trans. Consumer, VOL. 44, No.3, AUG, 1998.[17] Yong-Jung kim, Dong-Seon Han, and Ki Bum Kim, ”A New Fast Symbol Timing Recovery Algorithm for OFDM Systems”, IEEE Trans. Consumer, VOL. 44, No.3, AUG, 1998.[18] Young-Jae Ryu and Dong-Seon Han, “Timing Phase estimator Overcoming Rayleigh Fading for OFDM Systems” IEEE Trans. Consumer, VOL. 47, No.3, AUG, 2001.[19] “TMS320C6000 Peripherals- Reference Guide” Texas Instruments, April 1999[20] Yiyan Wu and William Y. Zou, “Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing: A Multi-carrier Modulation Scheme” IEEE Trans. Consumer, VOL. 41, No.3, AUG, 1995.[21] “Wide-band Orthogonal frequency Multiplexing (W-OFDM)” White Paper of WiLAN.[22] “IEEE 802.11g New Draft Standard Clarifies Future of Wireless LAN” Texas Instruments, April 2002.[23] Richard van Nee, Geert Awater, Masahiro Morikura, hitoshi Takanashi, Mark Webster and Karen W. Halford, “New High-Rate Wireless LAN Standards” IEEE Magazune Dec. 1999.[24] A.G. BURR, “Performance Analysis of COFDM for Broadband Transmission on a Fading Multipath Channel”, Kluwer Acadamic Publishers, 1998[25] Floyd M. Gardner, “Interpolation in Digital modems-----Part I: Fundamentals”, IEEE Trans. Commun., VOL. 41, No.3, MAR, 1993.[26] Lars Erup, Gloyd M. Gardner, Robert A. Harris, “Interpolation in Digital modems-----Part II: Implementation and Performance”, IEEE Trans. Commun., VOL. 41, No.6, JUNE, 1993.[27] Jie-Long Lin, “Study and Implementation of 16QAM Modulator and Demodulator”, Thesis of Master of Science, EE, NCKU, Taiwan. JUNE, 2001.[28] “TMS320C6711, TMS320C6711B Floating-Point Digital Signal Processors”, Texas Instruments, Revised Datasheet: SPRS088B, SEP, 2001.[29] Carlos A.P.N. Solis, “Setting Up TMS320C6201 Interrupts in C”, Texas Instruments,DSP Application Report: SPHA001.[30] Jae Kyoung Moon, Song In Choi, “Performance of Channel Estimation Methods For OFDM Systems in Multipath Fading Channel”, IEEE Trans. Consumer, VOL. 46,No.1, FEB, 2000.

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