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研究生:宋書銓
研究生(外文):Su-Chuan Sung
論文名稱:自由面漩渦之暫態分析
論文名稱(外文):The Transient Analysis on Free Surface Vortex
指導教授:林大惠林大惠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ta-Hui Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:煙線流率壓力暫態自由面漩渦
外文關鍵詞:free surfacevortextransientflowratepressurestreakline
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本研究針對一個在底部具有垂直出水管之水槽,觀測其隨時間改變之暫態自由面渦流流場現象。實驗其在不同的初始狀況和出水管口設計下,流率趨勢、初始氣凹與氣柱的形成、壓力場分佈以及流體運動情形所產生的變化。
實驗結果顯示,初始進水的水位高低並不會改變流率趨勢的變化,只有因為出水管本身尺寸及出水口設計的不同,才會改變流率的曲線變化狀況。出水管所造成的流率變化,往往與其排水截面積有關。在實驗過程中,一開始液體自由面外形平坦,隨著排水而使液面降至一定高度後,自由液面即產生初始氣凹,進而向下延伸而變成一氣柱。初始氣凹和氣柱生成時,所對應的水面高度雖然會隨著初始水位高度而上升,但是在高於一定水位後,兩者的生成高度即不再有大幅變化。
只有靠近出水口附近的狹窄區域,暫態流場的壓力場分佈才會產生特殊的變化。在軸向部分,愈遠離出水口,壓降愈小。而在徑向方面,出水口內任一位置的壓力都會降至一大氣壓以下;其中鐘形出水口的相對低壓區位於出水管內側壁緣,而銳緣出水口則位於0.57至0.72倍的出水管半徑處。
藉由觀察煙線的分佈情形,暫態渦流流場在水位尚高時,主要受到徑向及軸向速度影響;隨著水位降低,流場逐漸受到切線向速度的帶動而產生三維運動。因此渦流產生後,流場即可概略分為兩部分,在流場較高位置,液體分子受到旋轉運動控制,但是在水槽底部,則仍然以徑向速度為主。
This research investigates the transient characteristics of free surface vortex in a tank which has a vertical discharge pipe built on its bottom. The variations of flowrate, generations of dimple and critical submergence, distributions of pressure, and motions of fluid particles have been analyzed under different initial states and designs of the discharge pipe.
From the experiments, we conclude that the change of flowrate bears relation to the size and outlet design of the discharge pipe rather than to initial submergence depth. Furthermore, the cross-sectional area of discharging has direct influence on the change of flowrate. As the water-draining process goes on, a dimple forms on the free surface of liquid which is originally flat after the water level drops to a specific height. The dimple develops downward continually and an air column is thus generated. When the dimple and the air column are formed, the water level corresponding to them will rise with initial submergence depth, until the initial submergence depth reaches a certain height.
Only at the limited region adjacent to the outlet will the change of pressure result. As far as the axial direction is concerned, the farther apart from the outlet the distance is, the smaller the decrease in pressure is. As to the radial direction, the pressure in every spot inside the outlet is lower than standard atmospheric pressure. A relative low-pressure region of the round-edged discharge pipe is located at its rim, and that of the sharp-edged discharge pipe is situated at the position 0.57 to 0.72 times the pipe radius.
The observation of the streaklines shows that the flow field is controlled by the axial and radial velocities when the water level remains high. With the lowering of the water level, the tangential velocity gradually affects the flow field, which results in the three dimensional motion. Therefore, when the vortex is produced, flow field can be divided into two parts; at the upper part of the flow field, liquid particles are driven by the rotation, while near the bottom of the tank, the radial velocity dominates.
摘要 I
英文摘要 II
致謝 IV
總目錄 V
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
符號說明 XV
一、前言 1
1-1 暫態渦流之旋轉方向 2
1-2 穩態渦流之流場分佈與暫態渦流之流量改變 4
1-3 出口幾何設計之影響 7
1-4 渦流之無因次參數 9
1-5 研究目的 13
二、實驗設備與儀器 14
2-1 方形水槽及供儲水系統 14
2-2 影像處理系統 16
2-3 壓力量測系統 17
2-3-1 實驗水槽之壓力計 17
2-3-2 出水管之壓力計 18
2-3-3 流場假設與壓力數據的讀取 19
2-4 染劑施放系統 20
三、研究方法與步驟 23
3-1 實驗參數 23
3-2 流率量測 26
3-3 初始氣凹與氣柱之生成高度量測 27
3-4 壓力量測 27
3-5 流場觀測 28
3-6 實驗誤差 29
四、結果與討論 30
4-1 暫態流場之流率趨勢 30
4-1-1 初始水位對暫態流率之影響 30
4-1-2 出水管對暫態流率之影響 32
4-1-2-1 管口開啟模式的影響 32
4-1-2-2 出水口設計之影響 34
4-1-2-3 出水管尺寸之影響 36
4-1-3 排水量在暫態流場之變化 37
4-1-4 初始氣凹與氣柱在暫態流場之生成 38
4-1-4-1 上側開啟模式之影響 38
4-1-4-2 生成高度與初始液面高度之關係 39
4-2 暫態流場之壓力場 40
4-2-1 壓力計對平均流率之影響 41
4-2-2 壓力分佈之描述 42
4-2-2-1 出水管內徑2.5cm、出水口弧徑比0 43
4-2-2-2 出水管內徑2.08cm、出水口弧徑比0 47
4-2-2-3 出水管內徑2.5cm、出水口弧徑比0.04 49
4-2-2-4 出水管內徑2.08cm、出水口弧徑比0.04 49
4-2-3 暫態壓力場之特性 50
4-3 暫態流場之流場觀測 52
4-3-1 流場行為觀測之整體描述 52
4-3-1-1 出水管內徑2.5cm,出水口弧徑比0.04 53
4-3-1-2 出水管內徑2.5cm,出水口弧徑比0 56
4-3-2 暫態流場之整體描述 58
五、結論 61
六、附錄:重油燃燒實務測試 63
6-1 實驗設備及研究方法 63
6-1-1 實驗設備與機器 63
6-1-2 研究方法與步驟 65
6-2 燃料油之物化特性 66
6-3 燃料油之燃燒調整 69
6-4 燃料油之燃燒性能 71
6-5 燃燒性能之比較 73
6-6 結論 75
七、參考文獻 77
八、表 81
九、圖 86
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