跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(54.224.117.125) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/01/28 19:46
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:陳志強
研究生(外文):Jhy-Jiang Chen
論文名稱:汽油油品及引擎排放廢氣中金屬元素之特徵
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of Metal Elements in both Gasoline and Engine Exhaust
指導教授:王雅玢李文智李文智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ya-Fen WangWen-Jhy Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:重金屬汽油粒狀物
外文關鍵詞:particlegasolineheavy metal
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:27
  • 點閱點閱:1153
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:186
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
中文摘要

本研究採取隨機採樣的方法,於台灣中南部地區的加油站選定A油品公司與B油品公司,採集九二,九五,九八無鉛汽油各12個油品,計分析72個無鉛汽油品樣本、4個二行程、8個四行程機油油品樣本及18個機動車引擎排放廢氣中粒狀物之樣本。樣本以硝酸及過氯酸之混合液加熱消化法消化樣品,再以ICP-AES感應偶合電漿分析樣品中之金屬元素,以探討金屬元素之含量。
在A油品公司之無鉛汽油油品部分,所分析的二十種金屬元素中,九二無鉛汽油油品以地殼元素Ca (31.1 mg/L)、Al (14.5 mg/L)及Fe (11.9 mg/L)等三種金屬元素之平均濃度較高,人為污染金屬元素部分以Pb (4.36 mg/L)、Zn (4.08 mg/L)及Ti (3.06 mg/L)等三種金屬元素之平均濃度較高; 九五無鉛汽油油品以地殼元素Ca ( 31.3 mg/L)、Al (14.2 mg/L)及Fe (13.1 mg/L)等三種金屬元素之平均濃度較高,人為污染金屬元素部分以Pb (4.48 mg/L)、Zn (3.93 mg/L)及Ti (3.19 mg/L)等三種金屬元素之平均濃度較高; 九八無鉛汽油油品以地殼元素Ca (29.2 mg/L)、Al (13.4 mg/L)及Fe (11.9 mg/L)等三種金屬元素之平均濃度較高,人為污染金屬元素部分以Pb (4.17 mg/L)、Zn (4.93 mg/L)及Ti (2.84 mg/L)等三種金屬元素之平均濃度較高。比較A、B兩油品公司中濃度的高低,發現A油品公司金屬元素之濃度以Mg、Ba、Cr與Hg較高; B油品公司金屬元素之濃度以Ag與Pb較高。
機動車引擎排放廢氣中粒狀物部分,所分析的二十種金屬元素中,九二無鉛汽油油品以地殼元素Ca (18.1 mg/g)、Mg (7.76 mg/g)及Al (7.72 mg/g)等三種金屬元素之平均含量較高,人為污染金屬元素部分以Ba (3.26 mg/g)、Sr (0.69 mg/g)、Zn (0.07 mg/g)及Cr (0.05 mg/g)等四種金屬元素之平均含量較高; 九五無鉛汽油油品以地殼元素Ca (17.2 mg/g)、Al (6.52 mg/g)及Mg (6.39 mg/g)等三種金屬元素之平均含量較高,人為污染金屬元素部分以Ba (3.14 mg/g)、Sr (0.52 mg/g)、Zn (0.05 mg/g)及Cr (0.05 mg/g)等四種金屬元素之平均含量較高; 九八無鉛汽油油品以地殼元素Ca (13.5 mg/g)、Mg (6.32 mg/g)及Al (5.48 mg/g)等三種金屬元素之平均含量較高,人為污染金屬元素部分以Ba (2.54 mg/g)、Sr (0.41 mg/g)、Zn (0.08 mg/g)及Cr (0.04 mg/g)等四種金屬元素之平均含量較高。
九二,九五,九八無鉛汽油之機車排放廢氣中金屬元素之平均含量與油品中金屬元素平均濃度之關係中,在九二無鉛汽油油品方面,發現九二機車排放廢氣中金屬元素平均含量和油品中金屬元素平均濃度兩者之間有一良好之相關性(R2=0.889)。同樣地,九五機車排放廢氣中金屬元素平均含量和油品中金屬元素平均濃度兩者之間亦呈現良好之相關性(R2=0.904)。九八機車排放廢氣中金屬元素平均含量和油品中金屬元素平均濃度兩者之間相關性(R2=0.876)良好。
研究結果得知無鉛汽油油品中金屬元素平均濃度與機車排放廢氣中金屬元素平均含量有非常顯著之相關性,並且證明無鉛汽油油品中所含的金屬元素係造成機車排放廢氣中金屬元素分佈的主要因素。最後,排除引擎中的反應因素所造成的變因,若要解決廢氣粒狀物相中重金屬含量的問題,可以從油品中金屬元素的去除來著手。
Abstract

Seventy-two unleaded gasoline samples collected from A and B petrol company, and eighteen particulate samples collected with tube filter from the exhaust of the motorcycle engine were analyzed for twenty metal contents. Each particulate sample and unleaded gasoline sample was treated with acid extraction and pressurized digestion, respectively. The digested samples were then measured for metal elements using inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES).
Twelve samples were collected and analyzed from each one of 92, 95 and 98 unleaded gasoline in the A petrol company. In 92 unleaded gasoline, the concentrations of the earth elements, Ca(31.1 mg/L)、Al(14.5 mg/L) and Fe(11.9 mg/L), the concentrations of the artificial elements, Pb(4.36 mg/L)、Zn(4.08 mg/L) and Ti(3.06 mg/L) were higher than the others. In addition, in 95 unleaded gasoline, the concentrations of the earth elements, Ca(31.3 mg/L)、Al(14.2 mg/L) and Fe(13.1 mg/L), the concentrations of the artificial elements, Pb(4.48 mg/L)、Zn(3.93 mg/L) and Ti(3.19 mg/L) were higher than the others. Furthermore, in 98 unleaded gasoline, the concentrations of the earth elements, Ca(29.2 mg/L)、Al(13.4 mg/L) and Fe(11.9 mg/L), the concentrations of the artificial elements, Pb(4.17 mg/L)、Zn(4.93 mg/L) and Ti(2.84 mg/L) were higher than the others. Comparing the concentration of the metal elements between A and B petrol company, Mg、Ba、Cr and Hg in A petrol company were higher than in B. However, Ag and Pb in B petrol company were higher than in A.
Eighteen particulate samples from the exhaust of motorcycle engine were collected and analyzed. In 92 unleaded gasoline particulate samples, the concentrations of the earth elements, Ca(18.1 mg/g)、Mg(7.76 mg/g) and Al(7.72 mg/g), the concentrations of the artificial elements, Ba(3.26 mg/g)、Sr(0.69 mg/g)、Zn(0.07 mg/g) and Cr(0.05 mg/g) were higher than the others. In addition, in 95 unleaded gasoline particulate samples, the concentrations of the earth elements, Ca(17.2 mg/g)、Al(6.52 mg/g) and Mg(6.39 mg/g), the concentrations of the artificial elements, Ba(3.14 mg/g)、Sr(0.52 mg/g)、Zn(0.05 mg/g) and Cr(0.05 mg/g) were higher than the others. Furthermore, in 98 unleaded gasoline particulate samples, the concentrations of the earth elements, Ca(13.5 mg/g)、Mg(6.32 mg/g) and Al(5.48 mg/g), the concentrations of the artificial elements, Ba(2.54 mg/g)、Sr(0.41 mg/g)、Zn(0.08 mg/g) and Cr(0.04 mg/g) were higher than the others.
The result of regression analysis showed there is a good correlation between metal concentration of the unleaded gasoline and that of the exhaust of the motorcycle engine. The square of correlation coefficient R is 0.889, 0.904 and 0.876, respectively, among the 92, 95, 98 unleaded gasoline samples and exhaust samples. The result indicated that metal elements in the unleaded gasoline most emitted from the exhaust of the motorcycle engine. Reducing metal concentrations in unleaded gasoline will basically solve the problem of metal distribution from the exhaust of motorcycle engine.
總 目 錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
總目錄 V
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
 2-1 懸浮微粒之物化性質 3
  2-1-1 懸浮微粒之粒徑分佈 3
2-1-2 懸浮微粒之毒性機制 4
2-2 金屬元素之性質 5
2-2-1 金屬元素之物化特性 5
2-2-2 金屬元素之來源 10
2-2-3 金屬元素於環境中之遷移 11
2-2-4 金屬元素之毒害性 13
2-3 移動源空氣污染物排放特性 14
2-3-1 台灣地區機動車輛概況 14
2-3-2 空氣污染物排放特性 16
2-4 粒狀物特性 16
2-4-1 粒狀物之生成 16
2-4-2 柴油車排放之粒狀物特性 18
2-4-3 機動車汽油油品與排放之粒狀物特性 20
2-5 汽油引擎 20
2-5-1 汽油引擎之運轉原理 20
2-5-2 四行程循環引擎 21
2-5-3 二行程循環引擎 25
2-5-4 二行程與四行程汽油引擎之比較 26
2-6 潤滑系統 27
2-6-1 潤滑油定義 27
2-6-2 潤滑油來源 28
2-6-3 潤滑油之添加劑 28
2-6-4 機油黏度 30
2-6-5 黏度分類 31
第三章 實驗設備與方法 32
3-1 機動車引擎排氣粒狀物之採樣設備 32
3-2 機動車引擎之採樣方法 34
3-2-1 濾筒之前處理 34
3-2-2 粒狀污染物之採樣原理 36
3-2-3 粒狀物採樣之方法 36
3-2-4 油品之採樣 37
3-3 樣品分析 37
3-3-1 重金屬之分析 37
第四章 品質管制與品質控制 42
4-1 檢量線之製定 (Calibration Line) 42
4-2 檢量線空白校正 (Calibration Blank) 49
4-3 校正檢查 (Calibration Verification) 49
4-4 樣品分析 49
4-5 偵測極限 (ICP version) 52
第五章 結果與討論 55
5-1 汽油油品中金屬元素之特徵 55
5-1-1 九二無鉛汽油油品中金屬元素之平均濃度 55
5-1-2 九五無鉛汽油油品中金屬元素之平均濃度 58
5-1-3 九八無鉛汽油油品中金屬元素之平均濃度 58
5-1-4 A、B汽油油品公司中金屬元素平均濃度之比較 63
5-2 九二、九五、九八無鉛汽油油品與其他油品中金屬元素
平均濃度之比較 66
5-2-1 柴油油品中金屬元素之平均濃度 66
5-2-2 無鉛汽油油品與柴油油品中金屬元素平均濃度之比較 66
5-2-3 機油油品中金屬元素之平均濃度 69
5-2-4 無鉛汽油油品與機油油品中金屬元素平均濃度之比較 73
5-3 機動車引擎排放廢氣中金屬元素之平均含量 75
5-3-1 機動車排放廢氣中粒狀物之採樣 75
5-3-2 機動車引擎排放廢氣中金屬元素之平均含量 75
5-3-3 機動車排放廢氣中金屬元素平均含量和柴油車
排放廢氣中金屬元素平均含量之比較 79
第六章 結論與建議 88
6-1 結論 88
6-2 建議 91
參考文獻 92
附件 97
參考文獻

Altaf, W.J., Effect of Motorway Traffic Emissions on Roadside Wild-Plants in Saudi Arabia,Journal ofRadioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol.217, No.1 pp.91-94. (1997)
Blifford, I.H. and Meeker, G.O., A Factor analysis Model of Large Scale Pollution, Atmospheric Environment, Vol.1, pp. 147~157, 1967.
Clarke, L.B. and Sloss, L.L., Trace Elements - Emissions from Coal Combustion and Gasification, IEACR/49, IEA Coal Research, London, 1992.
Eddings, E.G., Determination of Metal Behavior during the Incineration of a Contaminated Montmorillonite Clay, Environment Science and Technology, Vol. 28, pp. 1791~1800, 1994.
EER, Corporation, Metal Partitioning Analysis, A Contract Study for EPA, 1986.
EER, Updated Guidance on Metals Interpolation and Extrapolation for Hazardous Waste Combustors, Draft Report, Prepared for EPA Office of Solid, 1996a.
EER, Updated Guidance on Metals Surrogates for Hazardous Waste Combustors, Draft Report, Prepared for EPA Office of Solid, 1996b.
Eldered, R.A., Cahill, T. A. and Flochini, R.G., Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 Aerosols in the IMPROVE Network, Journal of Air Waste Management Association, Vol. 47, pp. 194-203, 1997.
Facchetti, S., Lead in Petrol, The Isotopic Lead Experiment, Accounts Chemical Research, Vol. 22, 370-374, 1989.
Fanelli, J., An Analysis of Worldwide studies Detailing the Effects of the Reduction of Gasoline Lead on Air and Blood, Princeton University for Energy and Environmental Studies Report 300, 1997.
Gilson, M., Simpson, R., Polach, H., and Taylor, J., Microscopical TSP Studies Comparing a City Center and Suburban Sites in Canberra, Australia, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 22, pp.1745~1758.

James, P.S., Raveendra, V. I. and Timothy, E.F., Multivariate Statistical Examination of Spatial and Temporal Patters of Heavy Metal Contamination in New Bedford Harbor Marine Sediment, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 29, pp. 1781-1788, 1995.
Kerminen, V.M., Vilhuene, J. K., Characterization of the particulate Phase in the Exhaust from a Diesel Car, Environmental Science and Technology, vol.31, pp.1883-1889, 1997.
Kim, N. and Fergusson, J., Concentrations and Sources of Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc in House Dust in Christchurch, New Zealand The Science of the Total Environment, 138, pp. 1~21, 1993.
Lide, D., 1995; “ CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, ” 75th Ed. CRC Press.
Lundgren, D.A., Burton, R.MM., Effect of Particle Size Distribution on the Cut Piont Between Fine and Coarse Ambient Mass Fractions, Inhalation Toxicology 7(1), pp. 131~148, 1995.
Mathews, A. P, Chemical Equilibrium Analysis of Lead and Berylium Speciation in Hazardous Waste Incinerators, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Metals Speciation, Seperation and Recovery, Vol. II, pp. 73-83, 1989.
Morawska, L., Neville, D.B., and Ladislav, K, Submicrometer and Supermicrometer Particles from diesel Vehicle Emissions, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.32, No.14, 1998.
Mulholland, J. A. and Sarofim, A. F., The Mechanism of Inorganic Particles Formation during Suspension Heating of Simulated Wastes, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 25, pp. 268-274, 1991.
Nicole, A.H.J., Dimphe, F.M., Katinka, V.D.J., Hendrik, H. and Gerard, H., Mass Concentration and Elemental Composition of Airborne Particulate Matter at Street and Background Locations, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 31, pp. 1185-1193, 1997.
Nriagu, J.O. and Pacyna, J.m. Quantitative Assessnent of Worldwide Contamination of Air, Water and Solid by Trace Metals, Nature, 323, 134-139, 1988.
Olmez, I., Instrumental neutron activation analysis of atmospheric particulate matter, Methods of Air Sampling and Analysis, pp. 143-150, 1989.
Paasivirta, J., Chemical Ecotoxicology, Lewis Publishers, Inc., 1991.
Pacyna, J.M., Atmospheric Trace Elements from Natural and Anthropogenic Sources, in Nriagu, J.O. and Davidson, C.I. (eds.): Toxic Metals in the Atmosphere, Wiley, New York, 1986.
Peter, R., Substitution of bus for car travel in urban Britain: an economic evaluation of bus and car exhaust emission and other costs, Transportation Research Part D4, pp.109-125, 1999.
Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Levels and Chemistry of Atmospheric Particulates Induced by A Spill of Heavy metal Mining Wastes in the Donana Area, Southwest Spain, Atmospheric Environment, Vol.34, pp.239-253, 2000.
Rogge, W.F., Hildemann, L.M., Mazurek, M.A. and Cas, G.R., Sources of Fine Organic Aerosol, 3, Road Dust, Tire Debris, and Organometallic Brake Lining Dust: Roads as Sources and Sinks, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 27, pp. 1892-1904, 1993.
Singh, N., Pandey, V., Misra, J., Yunus, M. and Ahmad, K .J., Atmospheric Lead Pollution from Vehicular Emissions - Measurements in Plants, Soil, and Milk Samples, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 45, pp. 9-19, 1997.
Thomas, V. M.; Socolow, R.H.; Fanelli, J.J.; Spiro, T.G., Effect of Reducing Lead in Gasoline: An Analysis of the International Experience, Environmental Science and Technology, 33(22), 3942~3948, 1999.
USEPA, Evaluation and Estimation of Potential Carcinogenic Risk of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Carcinogen Assessment Group, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC, 1985.
USEPA, Guidance on Collection Emissions Data to Support Site-Specific Risk Assessments at Hazardous Waste combustion Facilities, EPA530-D-98-002, 1998.
USEPA, Introduction to Stationary Point Source Emission Inventory Development, Volume II: Chapter 1, 1997.
USEPA, Locating and Estimating Air Emission from Source of Polycycle Organic Matter(POM), EPA-45014-84-007, 1987.

USEPA, Locating and Estimating Air Emission from Sources of Polycyclic Organic Matter (POM), EPA-45014-84-007p, 1987.
USEPA, Receptor Model Source Composition Libray, Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, NC, U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Service(NTIS), EPA-450/4-85-002, 1984.
USEPA, Receptor Model Technical Series, Vol. II, Chemical Mass Balance, EPA-450/4-81-016b, 1981b.
USEPA, Technical Implementation Document for EPA's Boiler and Industrial Furnace Regulations, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, EPA-530-R-92-001, 1992b.
USEPA, Technical Implementation Document for EPA's Boiler and Industrial Furnace Regulations, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, EPA-530-R-92-001, 1992b.
USEPA, Technical Support Document for HWC MACT Standards Volume II Miscellaneous Technical Issues, Draft Report, 1996.
USEPA, Technical Support Document for HWC MACT Standards, Volume II, Miscellaneous Technical Issues, 1996.
Yatin, M., Tuncel, S., Aras, N. K., Olmez, I. and Aygun, S., Atmospheric trace element in Ankara, Turkey:1. factors affecting chemical composition of fine particle, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34, pp. 1305-1318, 2000.
中國石油月刊,1989。
中國石油月刊,2001。
尤鴻昌,廢塑膠焚化處理技術及排放廢氣中重金屬特性分析之研究,國立成功大學環境工程系碩士論文,1997。
交通部統計處,台灣地區交通統計月報,2000。
交通部統計處資訊服務網站,http://www.motc.gov.tw/~ccj/main.htm
吳信賢,類神經網路在受體模式之應用,碩士論文,國立台灣大學環境工程研究所,1996。
吳家誠,重金屬之化學種類分類與分析技術,化學,第49卷,第4期,pp. 316~322,1991。
吳鴻祥,汽車原理,大中國圖書公司印行,1972。
林清和,南高屏地區空氣污染總量管制規劃-移動源排放量整合與推估,行政院環保署,1999。
林慧華,廢棄物焚化過程中重金屬反應特性之研究-金屬氯化物形成潛能之研究,私立淡江大學水資源暨環境工程研究所,碩士論文,1992。
張劭勳,SAS for Windows 統計分析-高等統計,松崗電腦圖書資料股份有限公司,1995。
郭育良等,職業病概論,華杏出版股份有限公司,1998。
黃俊英,多變量分析,中國經濟企業研究所,1991。
黃靖雄,汽車學,正工出版社印行,1990。
楊奇儒,積塵再捲揚作用對地面附近大氣粒狀物濃度之影響,國立成功大學環境工程學系,碩士論文,1994。
楊錫賢,大氣環境中多環芳香烴化合物與金屬元素之特徵,博士論文,國立成功大學環境工程學系,1998。
劉育穎,機車排放醛酮類化合物特徵與光化反應性研究,成功大學環境工程研究所,碩士論文,1999。
樊邦棠,環境工程化學,科技圖書股份有限公司,pp. 311~318 ,1994。
蔣本基等人,台灣地區懸浮微粒空氣污染問題及防治之研究,期末報告,EPA-85-1402-0904,1996。
館正知,重金屬中毒及其防止對策,工業安全衛生,21期,pp.24~30,1991。
環保署網站,http://www.epa.gov.tw
謝徨麒,固定污染源排放金屬元素之特徵,成功大學環境工程研究所,碩士論文,2001。
羅濟豪,高雄市柴油車排放廢氣中有害重金屬元素之調查研究,成功大學環境工程研究所,碩士論文,2000。
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top