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研究生:陳建中
研究生(外文):Jeng-Chung Chen
論文名稱:都會水環境污染控制系統之最佳化操作策略分析
論文名稱(外文):Optimal Operation of Water Pollution Control System in the Urban Region
指導教授:張乃斌張乃斌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ni-Bin Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:172
中文關鍵詞:系統分析水污染模式人工智慧都會河川永續發展
外文關鍵詞:urban riversustainabilityartificial intelligencewater pollution modelsystems analysis
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都會區水環境生態的維護已成為人類文明永續發展所不可缺少之一環,因此先進國家無不致力於推動下水道系統及河川生態復育之建設工作,其中包括污水截流系統、下水道管線、污水處理廠、海洋放流管線等水污染控制工程,對於污染管理者而言,面對如此複雜的污染控制系統,如何發揮其全系統最大效益將是一大挑戰,本論文之研究目標即為如何有效管理水污染控制系統以降低水環境生態衝擊進而確保都會的永續發展。研究重點包括以下幾個問題,首先是暴雨時期之洪峰溢流對於都會河川之生態衝擊評估,其次是如何操控污水截流系統以達到暴雨污染衝擊的最小化,以及面對進流水狀況變化時如何維持污水處理污水處理廠及海洋放流管系統之最佳化操作,此外廢水回收再利用的可行性也應予以探討,最後是如何將此研究成果發展成網際網路決策支援系統。綜合以上之研究方向,本論文研究選擇以高雄市作為案例探討,針對都會水環境系統之複雜性進行系統分析,研究成果包括下列四個項目:
·第一部分乃在於開發暴雨逕流及水污染傳輸模式,首先在PCSWMM2000系統中建立各子集水區之RUNOFF與TRANSPORT分析模組並以此率定出暴雨逕流模式中之各項參數值,然後將這些經過驗證後的資訊結合USEPA SWMM4以推估暴雨時集水區地表逕流帶入承受水體之污染量,再以愛河水理水質傳輸模式(LRHWQ)模擬出暴雨逕流水污染對於愛河下游河段水質溶氧之可能變化及生態衝擊。
· 第二部分建立水污染控制系統之優化管理模式,並以此評判各種合流式下水道截流系統閘門之操控策略,將達到水環境生態衝擊最小化作為控制目標,同時針對截流後海岸污水處理廠及海洋放流系統面臨污染負荷突增時尋求最佳之操作策略,配合CORMIX海洋排放模擬模式之分析以協助管理者瞭解污水海放後可能之環境風險,分析結果顯示針對暴雨逕流污染的控制設置滯洪池是有必要的,而且若要藉由操控截流閘門以達到生態衝擊的最小化僅在於中小型降雨(降雨強度小於100mm/hr)且初始水質不算太差時(BOD小於60mg/L)才可行。
· 第三部分則運用人工智慧理論評估陸域污水處理系統放流水之回收再利用,以類神經網路所建立之放流水預報模式彌補污水廠運轉初期操作經驗之不足,並協助管理者進行適當之污水回收決策,以水中氮營養鹽之預測為例,當總氮濃度預測偏高時放流水將不宜作為地下水體的補注之用,而過高的氨氮濃度則不宜供給水產養殖。
· 第四部份
修改相關之模擬模式及優化模式分析功能,使其可執行線上分析能力,配合知識管理與網際網路地理資訊系統分析功能,建立網際網路決策支援系統,提供更為快速有效地的操控分析。
Many river systems in the urban region have been suffering from the wastewater discharges during the urbanization process for centuries. As a result, the proper control of storm water and domestic wastewater effluents has been becoming an integral part of the sustainable development plan. It is recognized that engineered systems, including sewer system, interceptor system, wastewater treatment plants, and outfall pipes are all essential urban infrastructures for water pollution control in the city of Kaohsiung, South Taiwan. However, increasing complexity over time in such an integrated system has resulted in a higher challenge to minimize the ecological impact due to sewage disposal. So, it is the aim of this study to utilize recent advances of systems engineering and information technologies in analyzing the complexity of operation of the urban sewer system as sea land interactions in many coastal cities has continuously received wide attention. To fulfill the ultimate goal of environmental restoration with regards to the ecosystem integrity in the complex urban river system, several key issues are worthwhile exploring. First, “to what extent must environmental restoration of the Love River in terms of ecological integrity be tied with the storm water impact?” Second, “to what degree should the basis for decision-making be made concerning the optimal operation of gates in the interceptor system in terms of the potential storm water impact under different estuary situation?” Third, what level must the optimal operation of ocean outfall system be imposed to handle the combined sewer overflows in order to meet the environmental integrity in the coastal region?” Fourth, “what is the possibility of using artificial intelligence techniques to manage wastewater reclamation and to mitigate the overall impacts of combined sewer overflows?” Finally, “could recent advances of Internet information technology be applied to building up the real-time on-line operation capacity for the urban sewer infrastructure system?” Therefore, this study is designed to addresses those critical issues by a holistic approach leading to achieve the following study goals based on the interdisciplinary principles of environmental science, policy, management, and technology for the city of Kaohsiung in South Taiwan. It achieves the following items:
· At first, calibrating and verifying the simulation model of SWMM to address the process of storm water runoff is required. The efforts will merit a credit by using well validated RUNOFF and TRANSPORT modules in the SWMM as a means to provide reliable inputs for the validated water quality simulation model (LRHWQ). Thus the integrated modeling system could smoothly link the storm water impact with the resultant DO levels in the receiving water body from both spatial and temporal stands.
· Once the interactive relationship between the storm water impact and the resultant estuary water quality is available, it is possible to engage in building an optimal gate operation model for minimizing the ecological impact due to the release of combined sewer overflows on one hand, and minimize the impact of ocean outfall by proper treatment of the intercepted combined sewer overflows on the other hand. The model of CORMIX is needed to assist in the assessment of pollutant diffusion in the marine environment. Based on the findings in this study, construction of a storage pond is inevitable. Yet the optimal solutions for sizing the storage pond in the sewer system can only be found in those cases when the rainfall intensity is below 100 mm/hr or the initial BOD5 concentration is smaller than 60 mg/L.
· In order to reduce the generation of wastewater effluents, applying the algorithms of artificial intelligent to handle wastewater treatment plant may help assess the recycling potential of the treated wastewater effluents. As a result, the neural network model selected in this study can be used as an on-line numerical tool for predicting effluent NH4+-N and total nitrogen contents and thereby, providing valuable and immediate information of the potential impacts of reuse actions to the aquatic environment.
· A decision support system is therefore developed in this study to include all the efforts of various simulation and optimization analyses in the architecture of a web-based environment.
CONTENTS
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌謝 V
CONTENTS VI
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
LIST OF TABLES XI
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION 1-1
1.1 Background of the Urban Water Environment 1-1
1.1.1 Study Area 1-1
1.1.2 Problem Identification 1-3
1.2 Research Objectives 1-13
1.3 Methodologies and Study Framework 1-15
II. LITERATURE REVIEW 2-1
2.1 Water Quality Simulation Models 2-1
2.1.1 Simulation of Storm Runoff 2-2
2.1.2 Fates and Transports of Pollutants in the Aquatic Environment 2-4
2.2 Storm Water Pollution Control 2-5
2.3 System Analysis for Wastewater Treatment and Ocean Outfall Process 2-6
2.4 Real-time Control with the aid of Artificial Intelligence 2-8
2.5 Wastewater Reclamation 2-11
2.6 Decision Support System 2-12
III. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS 3-1
3.1 Water Quality Sampling and Analysis 3-1
3.2 Model Development: SWMM Analysis 3-5
3.3 Model Development of LRHWQ 3-10
3.4 Model Calibration and Verification 3-14
3.5 Model Integration 3-29
IV. OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
SYSTEM 4-1
4.1 Optimal Operation Model of Sewer System 4-1
4.2 Optimal Management of Ocean Outfall System 4-5
4.3 Real-time Control of Wastewater Treatment Plant 4-12
4.4 Multiple Objectives Analysis of Wastewater Reclamation 4-23
V. WEB BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM 5-1
5.1 The Architecture of Web Based DSS 5-1
5.2 Database Design and Management 5-2
5.3 Sharing-Vision Modeling on the Web 5-6
5.3.1 Modeling Analyses 5-6
5.3.2 Optimization Analyses 5-6
5.3.3 Knowledge Management 5-7
VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 6-1
6.1 Storm Impact to an Estuarine Ecological System 6-1
6.2 Minimizing Ecological Risk During Combined Sewage Overflow 6-5
6.3 Optimal Control of CSO for Coastal Wastewater Treatment Ocean and
Outfall System 6-14
6.4 A Neural-Fuzzy Control Scheme in Aeration Control 6-21
6.5 Wastewater Reclamation Potential 6-31
6.6 The Development of Web-based DSS 6-33
6.6.1 Share-Version Decision Analysis 6-34
6.6.2 Generating Optimal Gate Operating Strategy 6-36
VII. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 7-1
7.1 Conclusions 7-1
7.2 Suggestions and Future Work 7-2
7.2.1 Suggestions 7-2
7.2.2 Future Work 7-5
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