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研究生:周忠義
研究生(外文):Chung-Yi Chow
論文名稱:室外空氣中揮發性有機物之毒性探討
論文名稱(外文):Microtox Toxicity of volatile organic compounds in outdoor air
指導教授:林達昌
指導教授(外文):Ta-Chang Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:Microtox急毒性測試揮發性有機物
外文關鍵詞:Microtoxvolatile organic compounds(VOCs)toxicityORBO Tube
相關次數:
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本實驗使用的活性碳吸附管(ORBO Tube)可將揮發性有機物(簡稱VOCs)有效吸附並且萃取出來,但因其極易揮發的特性,必須選擇一種快速且敏感性佳的毒性分析方法。Microtox急毒性測方法試檢測時間只有約5分鐘,具有快速便利且成本低廉的優點,更重要的是敏感度佳,本實驗採用此法。
毒性測試的結果:加油站>十字路口(尖峰時段)>城西里掩埋場>環工系頂樓>十字路口(離峰時段)>虎頭埤,而事實上,加油站所測得之VOCs的量也是最大,所以建議加油站設立油氣回收裝置,將揮發出來的有機物回收,避免擴散至大氣中,造成污染。
本實驗主要目的為建立出一套簡單且可信度高的方法,能經由空氣污染物中萃取出揮發性有機物並進行MicrotoxTM 毒性試驗,進一步探討室內空氣中的VOCs濃度與毒性的關聯性,瞭解VOCs對人體的實際影響,進行毒性評估與環境毒理研究。
The ORBO Tube in this experiment can effectively draw and extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs). But because of its easily volatile characteristic, we have to choose an analytic method of toxicity with fastness and good sensitivity. Microtox costs only five minutes to examine. Therefore it has the advantage being fast, convenient and cheap. What,s more important, it has good sensitivity. As a result,this method is adopted in this experiment.
Microtox toxcity result in the test : Gas station> the crossing place ( in the max-flow )> the landfill > the Department of Enivermental Engineering> the crossing place(in the min-flow) >a remote scenic area, and in fact , the VOCs of the gas station is the highest, suggesting that the gas station should we proper devices to recover the gasoline vaper, and to avoid the diffusion to the atmosphere,which will result in pollution.
總 目 錄

頁次
授權書…………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
中文摘要…………………………………………………………... Ⅱ
英文摘要………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
致謝……………………………………………………………… Ⅳ
總目錄……………………………………………………………... Ⅴ
表目錄……………………………………………………………... Ⅸ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………... Ⅹ
第一章 前言………………………………………………………. 1
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………. 3
2-1揮發性有機化合物之污染……………………….…………… 3
2-1-1 揮發性有機化合物之物化特性…………………………… 3
2-1-2揮發性有機物之危害………………………………………. 3
2-1-2-1揮發性有機物之危害性鑑定…………………………….. 4
2-1-2-2揮發性有機物之生物毒性……………………………….. 5
2-2空氣中揮發性有機物的特徵…………………………...…… 6
2-2-1空氣中揮發性有機物的來源…………………………..…… 6
2-2-2室外空氣中揮發性有機化合物的種類…………………….. 6
2-2-3 VOCs的毒性特徵……………………………………. 13
2-3 VOCs樣品的化學分析與毒性分析……………………….. 14
2-3-1 樣品的採集………………………………………………… 14
2-3-2 萃取………………………………………………………… 14
2-3-3分析…………………….………………………………… 15
2-4毒性試驗方法之重要性……………………………………
15
2-4-1微量空氣生物毒性試驗之重要性………………………… 15
2-4-2非活體(In Vitro)毒性試驗之重要性………………….. 16
2-4-3 In vitro毒性試驗與哺乳類動物之相關性………… 16
2-4-4生物毒性試驗的意義………………………………………. 17
2-4-5生物毒性試驗的應用………………………………………. 20
2-5發光細菌的簡介………………………………………… 21
2-5-1螢光菌的發現………………………………………. ……… 21
2-5-2螢光菌的分類與生態…………………………………………… 21
2-5-3 螢光菌的生長與發光………………………………………. …… 23
2-5-4螢光菌在細胞毒性試驗上的運用-MicrotoxTM………….. 23
2-5-5影響螢光菌毒性反應之因子………………………… 25
2-6 Microtox毒性試驗結果表示方法……………………. 29
2-6-1 EC50值之計算……………………………………………… 29
2-6-2空氣毒性的表示法…………………………………… 31
第三章 實驗步驟與方法………………………………….. 33
3-1採樣計劃 33
3-1-1 採樣流程…………………………………………………… 33
3-1-2 採樣規劃……………………………………………….. 33
3-1-3 採樣地點…………………………………………………… 33
3-2 實驗設備………………………………………………….. 34
3-2-1 採樣設備…………………………………………………… 34
3-2-2 吸附管……………………………………………………… 34
3-3 採樣工作與方法……………………………………….. 35
3-3-1 採樣方法………………………………………………. 35
3-3-2 樣品之收集與保存……………………………………… 35
3-4 分析設備及其程序…………………………………………… 38
3-4-1 VOCs分析設備及其程序………………………………….. 38
3-4-2毒性試驗設備…………………….……………………. 39
3-4-3毒性試驗程序…………………………………………… 40
3-4-4毒性試驗數據分析………………………………………. 42
第四章 結果與討論……………………………………………… 44
4-1 各種室外場所VOCs之化學分析…………………… 44
4-2 各種室外場所VOCs之毒性分析…………………… 46
4-2-1 環工系頂樓………………………………………………… 46
4-2-2 加油站……………………………………………………… 47
4-2-3 十字路口…………………………………………………… 48
4-2-4 城西里掩埋場……………………………………………… 49
4-2-5 虎頭埤…………………………………………………… 50
4-3 VOCs濃度與毒性相關性分析…………………………… 53
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………. 54
參考文獻…………………………………………………………... 55
附錄 A…………………………………………………………… 60
附錄 B…………………………………………………………… 75
附錄 C…………………………………………………………… 78
附錄 D…………………………………………………………… 80
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