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研究生:謝佳龍
研究生(外文):Jia-Long Hsieh
論文名稱:聚乙烯塑膠廢棄物中添加礦石粉對焚化煙道廢氣多環芳香烴化合物減量之研究
論文名稱(外文):Reduction of PAHs Emission in the Flue Gas of PE Plastic Waste Incineration
指導教授:李俊德李俊德引用關係李文智李文智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Teh LiWen-Jhy Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:173
中文關鍵詞:焚化多環芳香烴聚乙烯塑膠煙道廢氣天然礦石粉
外文關鍵詞:IncineratorStack flue GasPAHsMineral Stone Powder PE Plastic
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
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中 文 摘 要
  本研究是以一套固定床式焚化爐進行聚乙烯(Polyethylene)塑膠廢棄物之批次焚化實驗,藉由三個階段實驗中不同的批次進料,來瞭解天然有機酵素和天然礦石粉對焚化煙道廢氣中所含多環芳香烴化合物(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons,簡稱PAHs)之減量效果。煙道廢氣粒狀物相與氣相PAHs是以Auto5TM自動煙道道採樣器配合冷卻系統進行等速抽引採樣,在二十一種個別PAHs的分析上則以氣相層析質譜儀(GC/MS)進行定性及定量的測定。
  在第一階段實驗中,藉由改變第一、第二燃燒室的供風量及第二燃燒室的焚化溫度等操作條件,獲得本固定床式焚化爐在進行聚乙烯塑膠廢棄物焚化之最佳操作條件(第一、二燃燒室焚化溫度分別為450°C、900°C,第一、二然燒室供風量分別為900 NL/min、1200 NL/min),之後其他階段的實驗都在此操作條件下進行。其煙道排放之平均PAHs濃度為288 �慊/Nm3;在灰燼中PAHs平均含量為2.91 �慊/g;總PAHs之排放率為362 mg/hr,排放係數為152 mg/kg-PE
  接著在第二階段中,於聚乙烯塑膠中加入2%、5%、10%及15%的天然有機酵素作為批次的進料,發現天然有機酵素的加入比率和PAHs的減量並沒有明顯的趨勢,雖然如此,但對於廢氣中PAHs仍有平均約57.1 %的減量效果。其煙道排放之平均PAHs濃度約90.2 �慊/Nm3;在灰燼中PAHs平均含量為0.911 �慊/g;總PAHs之排放率為110 mg/hr,排放係數為45.9 mg/kg-PE
  到了第三階段,除了天然有機酵素外,還添加預先泡製的三種天然礦石粉(分別為片狀蛇紋岩、泥狀蛇紋岩、沸石),以1:1的方式分別和天然有機酵素混合後加入批次進料中。研究結果顯示:三種礦石粉對廢氣中PAHs的平均減量效果可達72.9 %。其煙道排放之平均PAHs濃度約52.5�慊/Nm3;在灰燼中PAHs平均含量為2.02 �慊/g;總PAHs之排放率為71.8mg/hr,排放係數為29.9 mg/kg-PE
  由上述實驗結果可以了解,在環數的分佈方面,煙道廢氣所排放的主要為二~三環的PAHs,約佔了80%~90%的比例,其次為五~七環,而以四環之PAHs為最少。雖在加入礦石粉之後,灰燼中之PAHs含量有增加之情況,但天然有機酵素或者是天然有機酵素混合礦石粉,對於廢氣中PAH都有不錯的減量效果。
Abstract
A batch-type, fixed-bed and controlled-air incinerator was used for the treatment of PE waste. We used three kinds of batch-feed to see that the reduction of PAHs emission from the flue gas. The PAH samples were analyzed primarily by using a Hewlett Packard GC/MS.
In the first stage, the PE plastic waste alone was incinerated. Operational parameter, including temperature and amount of air-supply for the primary and secondary combustion chambers, were controlled to investigate the contents and concentrations of particulate, CO and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)in the stack flue-gas. The bottom ash samples from the incineration were also collected and analyzed. In the this stage the optimal condition for PE waste incineration was found to be Tprimary=450℃, Tsecondary=900℃, Aprimary=900 NL/min, Aseconday= 1,200 NL/min. At this step, the mean total-PAH concentrations in the steak flue gas were 288 �慊/Nm3, the mean total-PAH composition in the bottom ash were 2.91 �慊/g, the mean total-PAH emission rate for this incinerator were 362 mg/hr and the total-PAH emission factor were 152 mg/kg-waste. Next stages were under this optimum condition.
In the second stage, natural fermenter of 2 %wt、5 %wt、10 %wt and 15 %wt was added into PE waste. The batch-feed additives resulted in a mean reduction of 59.5 % of PAHs emission from the flue gas. The mean total-PAH concentrations in the steak flue gas were 90.2 �慊/Nm3, the mean total-PAH composition in the bottom ash were 0.911 �慊/g, the mean total-PAH emission rate for this incinerator were 110 mg/hr and the total-PAH emission factor were 45.9 mg/kg-waste
In the third stage, three kinds of natural mineral powder – Marmolite, Serpentinite, Zeolite, were separately blended with the natural fermenter at 1:1 (weight) as the batch-feed additives (These additives should be soaked in the natural fermenter for more than five days.). The batch-feed additives gave a mean reduction of 73.4 % of PAHs emission from the flue gas. The mean total-PAH concentrations in the steak flue gas were 52.5 �慊/Nm3, the mean total-PAH composition in the bottom ash were 2.02 �慊/g, the mean total-PAH emission rate for this incinerator were 71.8 mg/hr and the total-PAH emission factor were 29.9 mg/kg-waste
As to PAH homologues, two and three-ring PAHs were dominant in stack flue-gas (average 80% ~90%), while, the four-, five- and seven-ringed PAHs were only accounted for minor fractions the total-PAH mass.
總 目 錄
頁次
授權書 I
中文摘要 III
英文摘要 V
誌謝 VII
總目錄 IX
表目錄 XIII
圖目錄 XIX
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 聚乙烯( PE )塑膠 3
2-2 塑膠燃燒現象 4
2-3 添加之各種礦石粉之性質 6
2-3-1 天然蛇紋岩之性質. 6
2-3-2 天然沸石之特性 6
2-4 燃燒控制 6
2-4 多環芳香烴化合物(PAHs)之性質 8
2-5 PAHs之物化特性 12
2-6 PAHs之來源及生成機制 15
2-6-1 PAHs之生成機制. 15
2-6-2 PAHs之來源 18
2-7 PAHs之致癌性及致突變性 20
2-8 PAHs之排放特徵 25
第三章 研究方法與步驟 29
3-1 研究設備 29
3-2 焚化程序 32
3-2-1 燃料油之購買 32
3-2-2 聚乙烯塑膠廢料之取得 33
3-2-3天然有機酵素之取得 33
3-2-4 天然礦石粉之取得 33
3-2-5 焚化爐試燒 33
3-2-6 焚化操作條件 33
3-3 煙道採樣設備與方法 37
3-3-1 煙道廢氣採樣系統 37
3-3-2 採樣之樣品 39
3-3-3 採樣方法 41
3-3-4 粒狀污染物之採樣原理 45
3-3-5 煙道廢氣採樣器抽氣體積計算 45
3-4 分析儀器及方法 49
3-4-1 分析儀器 49
3-4-2 分析方法 50
第四章 品質保證與品質控制 55
4-1 空白試驗 55
4-1-1 溶劑空白試驗 55
4-1-2 粒狀物相及氣相PAHs樣本之空白試驗 55
4-2 穿透率試驗 55
4-3 回收率試驗 57
4-4 標準品檢量線之建立 57
4-5 再現性試驗 59
4-6 PAHs方法偵測極限之測定 59
4-7 PAHs於分析儀器之滯留時窗 65
第五章 研究結果與討論 71
5-1 廢棄物及輔助燃料之成份分析 71
5-1-1 元素分析 71
5-1-2 廢棄物三成份分析及低位發熱量 71
5-1-3 焚化試程之理論空氣量及理論廢氣量 73
5-2 焚化試程 73
5-2-1 焚化操作條件 73
5-2-2 各焚化試程採樣之基本資料 76
5-3 焚化結果 77
5-4 PAHs之分析結果 85
5-4-1 總PAHs之濃度(�慊/Nm3)及含量(�慊/g) 85
5-4-2 二十一種各別PAHs之濃度及含量 94
5-5 總PAHs濃度與操作條件之關係 106
5-6 煙道排放總PAHs濃度與一氧化碳濃度之關係 110
5-7 焚化實驗之添加物對PAHs毒性之影響 112
5-7-1 總PAHs之毒性探討…………………………………………112
5-7-1-1 各焚化試程中總BaPeq含量 112
5-7-1-2 各焚化試程中煙道排放之BaPeq含量 112
5-7-1-3 各焚化試程中底灰之BaPeq含量 113
5-7-2 個別PAHs之毒性討…………………………………………117
5-7-2-1 總BaA含量之探討 117
5-7-2-2 總BbF含量之探討 118
5-7-2-3 總BkF含量之探討 119
5-7-2-4 總IND含量之探討 120
5-7-2-5 總DBA含量之探討 121
5-7-2-6 總BaP含量之探討 122
5-7-2-7六種個別PAHs間關係之探討 123
5-8 空白燃燒實驗 125
5-9 周邊大氣中PAHs之分析 125
5-10 煙道廢氣中各環數PAHs之分析 132
5-11 焚化前後之PAHs質量平衡分析 132
第六章 結論與建議 151
參考文獻 155
附錄 167
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