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研究生:王怡靜
研究生(外文):I-Jing Wang
論文名稱:含氧添加劑對車用無鉛汽油引擎排放多環芳香烴特徵之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Oxygenator on the Emissionof Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Gasoline Engine
指導教授:米孝萱米孝萱引用關係李文智李文智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao-Hsuan MiWen-Jhy Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:汽油添加劑甲基第三丁基醚汽油引擎多環芳香烴
外文關鍵詞:Polycyclic Aromatic HydrocarbonMethyl terl-Butyl Ether
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:15
  • 點閱點閱:436
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:63
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘要
本研究使用含有不同比例MTBE 之高辛烷值車用汽油進行引擎
排放多環芳香烴(PAHs)特徵之研究,其中燃料油品包括九五及九八無
鉛基礎油(95-LFBG 及98-LFBG)(不含MTBE)、市售九五及九八無鉛
汽油(95-LFG 及98-LFG)(MTBE 添加量為4.5%),以及添加百分之十
體積比MTBE 之九五及九八無鉛基礎油(95-M10 及98-M10),分別在
四種不同操作條件下,針對每種燃料油之引擎排放廢氣中21 種PAHs
進行三次採樣及分析,分析儀器為GC/MS 。
研究結果顯示,95-LFBG 引擎排放總PAHs 濃度為三種九五油品
中最高者(664 µg/Nm 3 ),分別為95-LFG(660 µg/Nm 3 )及95-M10(466
µg/Nm 3 )引擎之1.01 及1.42 倍,而九八汽油引擎排放廢氣濃度則以
98-LFBG(623 µg/Nm 3 )最高,分別為98-LFG(539 µg/Nm 3 )及98-M10
(427 µg/Nm 3 )之1.16 及1.46 倍。
比較九五及九八之單位耗油量之總PAHs 排放係數,95-LFBG 為
98-LFBG 之1.20 倍,95-LFG 為98-LFG 之1.18 倍,95-M10 則為
98-M10 之1.11 倍。此結果顯示高PAHs 含量之燃料油品具有較高之
就單位行駛距離之PAHs 排放係數而言,三種九五無鉛汽油由高
而低排序為95-LFBG > 95-LFG > 95-M10 。而在三種九八無鉛汽油引擎單位耗油量總PAHs 排放係數亦呈現相同的趨勢:
98-LFBG>98-LFG >98-M10 ,而在不同操作條件下所有的油品引擎單
位行駛距離之排放係數皆以40km/hr 之狀態最高,以110km/hr 之操
作條件下最低。
含氧添加劑MTBE 對汽油引擎排放PAHs 特徵之影響,引擎總
PAHs 排放係數隨MTBE 之添加量之增加而降低,亦使單位耗油量之
PAHs 排放係數之BaPeq 隨之降低,雖然低分子量之PAHs 毒性當量
皆較低,但因為其在總排放量上佔了很高的比例,因此其毒性當量不
容忽視,而高毒性當量之PAHs 亦因MTBE 之添加而有削減的趨勢。
Abstract
The fuels with different fraction of oxygenate MTBE were used to
investigated the emission of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
from the gasoline engine. These fuels included 95-Leadfree Base
Gasoline (95-LFBG), 98-Leadfree Base Gasoline (98-LFBG),
95-Leadfree Gasoline (95-LFG), 98-Leadfree Gasoline (98-LFG),
95-Leadfree Gasoline containing 10% MTBE (95-M10) and 98-Leadfree
Base Gasoline containing 10% MTBE (98-M10).The engine was
simulated for the idling condition and the cruising speed at 40, 80 and
110km/hr.The samples with twenty one individual PAHs emitted from the
engine powered by each fuel was taken by three times on each conditions.
The samples were analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer
(GC/MS). The results of this study were summarized as follows. For theemission of total-PAH concentration, among three 95-leadfree fuels, the
highest one is that of 95-LFBG engine (664 µg/Nm 3 ), which is 1.01 and
1.42 times of magnitude higher than that emitted from 95-LFG and
95-M10 powered engines, respectively. Among the 98-leadfree fuel, the
highest total-PAH concentration of engine emission was 98-LFBG, which
is 1.16 and 1.46 times of magnitude higher than that emitted from
98-LFG and 98-M10 engine, respectively. The emission factor per liter
fuel consumption of 95-LFBG, 95-LFG and 95-M10 engine was 1.20,
1.18 and 1.11 times of magnitude higher than that of 98-LFBG, 95-LFG
and 95-M10 engine, respectively. These results showed that a fuel with a
higher PAH content has more potential to emit more amount of PAHs
from the engine exhaust. The sequence of total-PAH emission factor per
kilometer of traveling for 95- and 98-leadfree fuel engines were
95-LFBG>95-LFG >95-M10 and 98-LFBG > 98-LFG > 98-M10,
respectively. Under 4 different operation conditions, the 40km/hr
condition was found to have highest total-PAH emission factor and the
110 km/hr condition showed with the lowest one. The effect of MTBE on
the PAH emission showed that a higher amount of MTBE adding in
gasoline will result in a lower total-PAH emission factor of the gasoline
engine. Though the BaPeq of LM-PAHs is relatively low, the risk of
LM-PAHs should not be ignored due to their high concentration in the
engine exhaust. The BaPeq of PAH emission factor from the engine
exhaust was reduced by adding more amount of MTBE in the gasoline.
總目錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
致謝……………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ
總目錄…………………………………………………………………..Ⅵ
表目錄…………………………………………………………………..Ⅸ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………….. VI
第一章 前言..............................................................1
第二章 文獻回顧..........................................................3
2-1 多環芳香烴化合物...................................... .............3
2-1-1 PAHs 之性質........................................................3
2-1-2 PAHs 之來源及形成機制..........................................7
2-1-3 人類在環境中之PAHs 暴露........................................8
2-1-4 PAHs 對人體之危害................................................10
2-2 汽油引擎及其排放特徵.................................................12
2-2-1 汽油引擎之運轉特性................................................12
2-2-2 影響汽油引擎污染排放之因素.................................14
2-2-3 汽油之PAHs 排放特徵.............................................15
2-2-4 汽油引擎排放粒狀污染物及其粒徑分布..................17
2-3. 汽油品質參數..........................................................18
2-3-1 無鉛汽油辛烷值........................................................18
2-3-2 汽油中烯烴與芳香烴含量........................................20
2-4 汽油之含氧添加劑甲基第三丁基醚(MTBE).......................21
第三章 實驗設備與方法...................................................28
3-1 汽油引擎排氣採樣方法..................................................28
3-2 汽油引擎排放採樣設備...................................................29
3-3 分析方法與器材...........................................................31
3-3-1 採樣之樣品............................................................31
3-3-2 PAHs 分析方法與設備............................................34
第四章 品質保證與品質管制............................................................39
4-1 採樣設備之品保與品管.......................................................39
4-2 PAHs 數據分析之品保與品管.............................................39
第五章 結果與討論.........................................................................62
5-1 實驗用油中PAHs 之含量....................................................62
5-2 汽車引擎排放廢氣中之PAHs 濃度.....................................66
5-2-1 九五無鉛汽油引擎排放廢氣中之PAHs 濃度...........66
5-2-2 九八無鉛油品之汽車引擎排放廢氣之PAHs 濃度..72
5-2-3 汽油引擎排放廢氣中不同環數PAHs 濃度...............78
5-3 汽車引擎之PAHs 排放係數.................................................86
5-3-1 不同油品汽車引擎之PAHs 排放係數......................86
5-3-2 汽車引擎排放係數之PAHs 環數分布.................... 104
5-4 汽車引擎之PAHs 之輸出/輸入質量比(O/I Ratio)............... 111
5-6 添加MTBE 對汽車引擎排放廢氣中PAHs 之影響............ 116
5-6-1 MTBE 對排放廢氣濃度之影響................................ 116
5-6-2.添加MTBE 對汽車引擎排放廢氣中PAHs 之影響(A/N
Ratio)............................................... 120
5-6-3 以Complex Model 評估添加MTBE 對毒性之影響
............................................... ........124
第六章 結論..................................................... 126
參考文獻............................................................ 128
附錄................................................................. 136
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