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研究生:劉家玲
研究生(外文):Chia-Ling Liu
論文名稱:預氯程序對粉狀活性碳吸附2-MIB之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Pre-chlorination on the Adsorption of 2-MIB to PAC
指導教授:林財富林財富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cai-Fu Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:表面擴散模式(HSDM)2-MIB粉狀活性碳(PAC)鳳山水庫等背景化合物(EBC)模式
外文關鍵詞:Feng-Shen reservoirequivalent background compound (EBC) modelpowered activation carbon (PAC)chlorine2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB)homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM)
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台灣南部地區自來水中的土霉味問題存在已久,雖然前人研究顯示粉狀活性碳(PAC)可以有效去除水中常見土霉味物質2-MIB(2-methylisoborneol),並可以用很少的實驗結合理論模式,有效地預估PAC對2-MIB的吸附動力。但因國內水廠中經常有前加氯的程序,所以氯對PAC吸附2-MIB之影響仍有待了解。

本研究以鳳山水庫原水為對象,探討在不同加氯量下,粉狀活性碳對2-MIB的去除效率,及其對吸附動力的影響。藉由探討原水中的有機物、2-MIB、氯與粉狀活性碳間之作用及機制,以了解活性碳吸附原水中2-MIB之行為。最後並將實驗室結果結合模式分析,建立一套原水中活性碳添加劑量與接觸時間及2-MIB濃度變化的預測方法,以運用至實廠的處理流程中。

研究中發現,氯對原水中有機物特性的改變,很有可能會影響到活性碳對2-MIB的去除效率,且氯與活性碳添加劑量之比例不同時,可能因氯與活性碳表面作用、氯與天然有機物作用以及氯與藻類作用等不同的加乘結果,對2-MIB之去除率也有不同程度的影響。由於氯會將天然有機物轉變成較親水性的物質,因而降低與2-MIB之競爭活性碳表面位置,使其對2-MIB的吸附量明顯提升,因此實驗結果中發現預先以氯處理之原水,去氯後活性碳對2-的吸附量會降低5-10%,而FTIR分析結果也證實原水中有機物之-OH及-CO基增加,顯示親水性上升。另外,當PAC與氯先行反應後去氯,再將其加入原水中反應後發現,對2-MIB之去除率明顯降低25-35%,推測整個氯對活性碳吸附2-MIB的反應,應是前兩者機制綜合之結果。

在實驗室中粉狀活性碳吸附2-MIB之動力曲線可以有效以HSDM模式配合一組動力實驗進行預測,並可以推估瓶杯試驗(Jar-test)中不同PAC添加劑量之實驗結果,也可以合理地預測鳳山實廠中PAC對2-MIB之去除效果,顯示此技術之有效性。
The unpleasant odors of drinking water in southern Taiwan has exist for a long time. Musty/earthy, fishy and chlorine odors are the three major odor groups in drinking water , and musty/earthy odor is known to be the most difficult one to be removed. Previous study suggested that powered activated carbon (PAC) can remove a typical odorous compound, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) effectively. And only one kinetic experiment was combined with the models can predict the adsorption kinetic curves. But, many water treatment plants in Taiwan always use pre-chlorination. The effect of pre-chlorination on the adsorption of 2-MIB to PAC must be considered.
中文摘要................................I
英文摘要................................III
誌謝....................................V
目錄....................................VI
表目錄..................................XI
圖目錄..................................XII

第一章 前言.................................. 1
1-1研究緣起.................................. 1
1-2研究目的.................................. 2
1-3研究內容...................................2

第二章 文獻回顧...............................5
2-1自來水中的臭味問題.........................5
2-1-1水中臭味的種類及成因.....................5
2-1-2造成水中土霉味之物質.....................7
2-2自來水中臭味物質之控制方法.................13
2-2-1水源控制.................................13
2-2-2傳統處理方法.............................13
2-2-3氧化.....................................14
2-2-3-1加氯氧化...............................15
2-2-3-2高錳酸鉀氧化...........................15
2-2-3-3臭氧氧化...............................16
2-2-4生物處理.................................17
2-2-5薄膜處理.................................17
2-2-6活性碳吸附...............................18
2-3影響活性碳吸附之因素.......................21
2-3-1活性碳的種類.............................21
2-3-1-1活性碳的本質...........................21
2-3-1-2吸附原理...............................21
2-3-1-3活性碳的種類...........................22
2-3-1-4活性碳的表面化學性質...................24
2-3-2吸附質的特性.............................24
2-3-3背景水質.................................25
2-3-4混凝作用對活性碳吸附的影響...............26
2-3-5接觸時間.................................27
2-3-6活性碳添加位置...........................28
2-3-7水中餘氯的影響...........................29
2-4加氯對活性碳吸附的影響.....................31
2-4-1餘氯在活性碳表面之作用...................31
2-4-2餘氯對活性碳吸附水中有機物之影響.........34
2-4-3餘氯對活性碳吸附2-MIB之影響..............36
2-5平衡模式...................................38
2-5-1 假想(Fictive Components, FCs)模式.......38
2-5-2等背景化合物模式.........................40
2-6動力模式...................................43
2-6-1 HSDM模式理論............................43
2-6-2 HSDM模式之應用..........................46

第三章 實驗設備與方法.........................48
3-1活性碳物理特性分析.........................48
3-1-1活性碳製備...............................48
3-1-2比表面積測定.............................49
3-1-3孔隙分析.................................49
3-1-4粒徑分布測定.............................50
3-1-5表面特性分析.............................50
3-2土臭味物質之分析方法.......................51
3-2-1實驗試劑.................................51
3-2-2實驗設備.................................51
3-2-3實驗方法.................................52
3-2-4水中餘氯對土臭味分析的影響...............54
3-3吸附實驗...................................55
3-3-1實驗試劑.................................55
3-3-2實驗設備.................................55
3-3-3實驗水樣.................................56
3-3-4活性碳與氯之作用實驗.....................56
3-3-5 2-MIB與氯之作用之實驗...................57
3-3-6活性碳吸附2-MIB之實驗....................57
3-3-6-1吸附平衡實驗...........................57
3-3-6-2吸附動力實驗...........................58
3-3-7吸附動力模式.............................59
3-4鳳山實廠添加粉狀活性碳之實驗...............63
3-4-1瓶杯試驗(Jar-test).......................63
3-4-2鳳山淨水廠現場調查.......................64
3-5 HSDM模式之應用............................67

第四章 結果與討論.............................70
4-1活性碳分析結果.............................70
4-2預備實驗...................................76
4-2-1水中餘氯對SPME分析方法的影響.............76
4-2-2活性碳與氯之作用.........................77
4-2-3餘氯對2-MIB之作用........................78
4-3餘氯影響活性碳吸附去除2-MIB之實驗..........80
4-3-1吸附平衡實驗.............................80
4-3-2吸附動力實驗.............................86
4-3-3經氯作用後原水之活性碳吸附動力實驗.......94
4-3-4經氯作用後之粉狀活性碳吸附動力實驗.......98
4-4鳳山實廠添加粉狀活性碳之實驗...............100
4-4-1 FS-PAC之吸附平衡實驗....................100
4-4-2 FS-PAC之吸附動力實驗....................102
4-4-3 HSDM模式之應用..........................106
4-4-4瓶杯試驗(Jar-test).......................109
4-4-5鳳山淨水廠現場調查結果...................111

第五章 結論與建議.............................114
5-1結論部分...................................114
5-2建議部分...................................116


參考文獻......................................117

附錄一、2-MIB檢量線...........................130
附錄二、2-MIB分析之準確度與精密度.............131
附錄三、2-MIB分析之方法偵測極限...............132
附錄四、吸附動力實驗之餘氯量..................134
附錄五、HSDM模式程式碼(Source code)...........135

自述..........................................141
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