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研究生:謝添進
研究生(外文):Tien-Chin Hsieh
論文名稱:台北、高屏地區土壤污染涵容能力推估
指導教授:林財富林財富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsair-Fuh Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:健康風險評估土壤生態風險評估
外文關鍵詞:SESOILHealth Risk AssessmentSoilEcological Risk Assessment
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台灣地區土壤污染日益嚴重,因此如何評估污染場址對人體健康與環境之影響程度也日受重視。本研究之目的以風險角度考慮土壤涵容能力,著重於人體健康與生態環境之保護,進行台北、高屏地區土壤之涵容能力推估。
研究首先收集台灣地區土壤特性資料、污染調查報告及尋找污染物特性資料庫,再配合污染物在土壤中之傳輸與宿命模式(SESOIL),並結合健康風險評估及生態風險評估來推估污染物對暴露受體所造成之影響,最後以反推方式即可進行土壤涵容能力之推估。
模擬結果顯示,在一般地下水位深度情況下(約為3公尺),土壤所能承受之最大污染量,苯為4.3 mg/kg、三氯乙烯為36 mg/kg、甲苯則為17 mg/kg,而結果也顯示地下水位越深,則可承受之污染量越大,因此以地下水污染潛勢為考慮之土壤污染涵容能力應將地下水水位納入考慮。
研究中發現污染物對人體健康風險中之暴露途徑,揮發性有機物(苯、甲苯、三氯乙烯)以呼吸為主;半揮發性有機物(鄰苯二甲酸正二辛酯)以農作物攝入、皮膚接觸為主;重金屬(砷、鉻、汞)則以農作物攝入、誤食土壤為最主要之途徑。
台北、高屏地區六種代表性土系及其氣候條件下對污染物暴露量影響差異性主要係由土壤有機質及降雨量所造成,一般而言,土壤有機質含量越大,有機物移動越慢,降雨越大則污染物移動越深。對風險度增加而言,前者會使有機物風險性增加,後者則會使地下水污染潛勢增大。
而針對台北、高屏六土系對七種不同污染物所推估而得之最大可承受濃度。苯之最大可承受濃度介於0.05~0.12mg/Kg;三氯乙烯之最大可承受濃度介於10.1~34.8mg/Kg;甲苯之最大可承受濃度介於300~400mg/Kg;鄰苯二甲酸正二辛酯之最大可承受濃度介於100~120mg/Kg;砷之最大可承受濃度介於0.63~0.74mg/Kg;鉻之最大可承受濃度介於25~29mg/Kg;汞之最大可承受濃度介於0.39~0.48mg/Kg。
生態風險評估方面,針對六種代表性動物對重金屬鉻及砷,在六種台北、高屏地區代表土壤中所得到的結果顯示,個體小的代表性生物,其能承受之劑量越小,因此土壤污染承受能力越低,且往往低於以人體健康風險考量情況下所得之數值。而Dove(鴿子)容許濃度為28~39 (鉻)、0.35~0.50 (砷) mg/Kg;Woodcock(山鷸)容許濃度為11~35 (鉻)、0.14~0.44 (砷) mg/Kg;Hawk(鷹)容許濃度為70~100 (鉻)、0.88~1.26 (砷) mg/Kg;Vole(田鼠)容許濃度為350~860 (鉻)、4.67~11.5 (砷) mg/Kg;Shrew(地鼠)容許濃度為170~670 (鉻)、2.27~8.93 (砷) mg/Kg;Weasel(黃鼠狼)之容許濃度為1800~4300 (鉻)、24~57 (砷)mg/Kg。
Abstract
Soil pollution has become a serious problem in Taiwan. To understand the effect of the pollution on the human health and environmental quality, the carrying capacity of soil must be determined. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to develop a scheme to estimate the carrying capacity of pollutants for soil, and then to apply the scheme to determine the carrying capacity for Kaohsiung and PingTong Area (Kao-Ping Area) and Taipei Area.
Information about soil properties, weather conditions, and characteristics of contaminants were first collected. Considering the parameters collected, numerical models are used to simulate the transport and fate of different target contaminants in the contaminated soil systems. Exposure models are then employed to estimate human and animal exposure to the target compounds from different pathways, including air, ground water, surface water, and soil. The target compounds include three organic pollutants, benzene, trichloroethylene, toluene and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP), and two heavy metals, including arsenic and chromium. Based on the exposure estimation, human health and ecological risks were interpreted at different soil contamination levels. The carrying capacity of soil for different contaminants was determined according to acceptable health and ecological risks.
After comparison for many transport models’ mechanisms, the SESOIL model was selected as the unsaturated zone model. In SESOIL, hydrogeological simulation, soil deposition movement, and contaminant transport are accounted for. Five categories of input parameters, including meteorological data, soil properties, chemical characteristics, application data, and washload, are needed in the model.
The exposure pathways considered in this study include ingestion of soil, drinking water, and vegetables, and inhalation of air and airborne dust, and dermal contact of the contaminated soil. The model for each pathway was based on that developed by USEPA, while the input parameters were either collected from local reports if possible or from the suggested values from USEPA.
The results of simulation show that the carrying capacity for the representative Kao-Ping area soil and weather condition, are 4.3 mg/kg for benzene, 36 mg/kg for TCE and 17 mg/kg for toluene under normal groundwater depth (about 3 m). The deeper the groundwater level, the higher carrying capacity the soil may have.
The major exposure pathways for the volatile compounds, including benzene, toluene, and trichloroethylene (TCE), are inhalation, while that for the semi-volatile organic compound, di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP), are ingestion of food and dermal contact. For heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, and mercury, the major pathway is ingestion of both food and soil.
For the six representative soils in the two climate systems of Kao-Ping and Taipei areas, the chemical exposure and associated risk to human are differentiated by the organic content, in the soil and the annual precipitation in the area. Generally, more organic content in the soil may slow down the movement of organic pollutants, while more annual precipitation may cause faster migration of the pollutants.
Based on the estimation of seven pollutants in the six soil systems, the carrying capacity is between 0.05and 0.12 mg/kg for benzene, between 10.1 and 34.8 mg/kg for TCE, between 300 and 400 mg/kg for toluene, between 100 and 120 mg/kg for DOP, between 0.63 and 0.74 mg/kg for arsenic, between 25 and 29 mg/kg for chromium and between 0.39 and 0.48 mg/kg for mercury.
For ecological risk assessment, only two heavy metals, chromium and arsenic are evaluated for six representative animals suggested by USEPA, including dove, woodcock, hawk, vole, shrew and weasel. The results show that the animal with smaller body weight has lower carrying capacity, and those carrying capacity are sometimes smaller than that based on the health risk assessment.
The estimated carrying capacity of arsenic based on ecological risk assessment for Taipei and Kao-Ping area are 0.35 to 0.50, 0.14 to 0.44, 0.88 to 1.26, 4.67 to 11.5, 2.27 to 8.93 mg/kg, and 24 to 57 for dove, woodcock, hawk, vole, shrew and weasel, respectively. That of chromium are 28 to 39, 11 to 35, 70 to 100, 350 to 860, 170 to 670 and 1800 to 4300 mg/kg for dove, woodcock, hawk, vole, shrew and weasel, respectively.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI

第一章 序論 1
1-1研究動機與緣起 1
1-2研究目的 1
1-3研究架構…………. 2

第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1國內土壤污染現況 4
2-1-1台北、高屏地區土壤品質現況分析 7
2-2國內土壤污染管制標準制定方法 15
2-2-1有機物質標準 15
2-2-2重金屬監測基準及管制標準 18
2-3污染物在土壤中之遷移與宿命 22
2-3-1重金屬 22
2-3-2有機物 22
2-4風險評估 26
2-4-1風險評估的步驟 26
2-4-2健康風險評估 28
2-4-3生態風險評估 32
2-5變異性及不確定性 34
2-6涵容能力推估與應用 37

第三章 研究方法 39
3-1土壤涵容能力推估模式架構 39
3-2污染物特性與代表性土壤資料 42
3-3傳輸模式篩選與驗證 46
3-3-1模式篩選 46
3-3-2 SESOIL模式介紹 49
3-3-3模式之驗證 57
3-4健康風險評估 61
3-4-1暴露途徑 64
3-3-2暴露參數 73
3-5生態風險評估 76
3-5-1生態風險評估流程 76
3-5-2風險評估模式參數 78
3-5-3生態風險推估值 80

第四章 結果與討論 82
4-1傳輸模式之敏感度分析與驗證結果 82
4-1-1土壤與化合物特性分析結果 82
4-1-2代表性地區土壤及氣候參數對模式之影響 86
4-1-3模式驗證 88
4-2健康風險評估 90
4-2-1有機污染物模擬結果 90
4-2-5重金屬模擬結果 102
4-3生態風險評估 113
4-3-1鉻之評估結果 113
4-3-2砷之評估結果 115
4-4台北及高屏土壤涵容能力推估結果 117
4-4-1以地下水污染潛勢考量之涵容能力 117
4-4-2以健康風險考量之涵容能力 117
4-4-3以生態風險考量之涵容能力 120
第五章 結論與建議 122
參考文獻 125
附錄 131
自述 137
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網站
U.S.EPA http://www.epa.gov/
U.S.EPA, Integrated Risk Information System(IRIS)
http://www.epa.gov/iris/
U.S. Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) http://www.epa.gov/swerust1/subindex.htm
NUTRIENT DATA LABORATORY(USDA)http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/
行政院環保署 http://www.epa.gov.tw/
行政院環保署環檢所 http://www.niea.gov.tw/niea2002/index_Frame.htm
中國石油公司 http://www.cpc.com.tw/index_6.asp
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