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研究生:劉純湖
研究生(外文):Chun-Hu Liu
論文名稱:台南地區婦女乳汁中戴奧辛與多氯聯苯濃度之調查研究
論文名稱(外文):The PCDD/PCDF/PCB Levels in Breast Milk Samples Collected in Tainan Area
指導教授:郭育良郭育良引用關係廖寶琦廖寶琦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yue-Liang GuoPao-Chi Liao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:多氯戴奧辛暴露評估母乳戴奧辛多氯呋喃多氯聯苯
外文關鍵詞:dioxinsPCDFsPCDDsexposure assessmentPCBsbreast milk
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
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  • 下載下載:113
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
  多氯戴奧辛(PCDDs)、多氯呋喃(PCDFs)及多氯聯苯(PCBs)為廣泛的存在於環境中的污染物。多氯戴奧辛、多氯呋喃及多氯聯苯在環境中具有相當高的穩定性,因其脂溶性高且半衰期長,故可經由食物鏈的生物累積作用而進入人體內。評估人體受到多氯戴奧辛、多氯呋喃及多氯聯苯暴露程度的高低時,主要以分析脂肪組織、血液及母乳樣本為主。在此三種樣本中,收集母乳樣本較不具有侵入性且可同時評估母親與嬰兒的受到多氯戴奧辛、多氯呋喃及多氯聯苯的暴露情形。本研究之目的有(1)分析台南地區婦女的乳汁中多氯戴奧辛、多氯呋喃及多氯聯苯的濃度及(2)評估嬰兒因食用母乳半年後所暴露之多氯戴奧辛、多氯呋喃及多氯聯苯的量。
  本研究的樣本來自於台南地區的成大、新樓及奇美醫院,於2000年至2001年之間共收集了41個母乳樣本。利用乙醇與正己烷將母乳中的脂肪萃取出,然後以硫酸將脂肪消化。分析十七種多氯戴奧辛及多氯呋喃時,以SCX、SI及Florisil等三種固相萃取管柱淨化萃出液,再以氣相層析儀-高解析度質譜儀分析;分析36種多氯聯苯時,只以Florisil固相萃取管柱淨化萃出液,再以氣相層析儀暨電子捕捉式偵測器分析。
  參與本研究之婦女的平均年齡為30 ± 3.6歲。母乳中17種戴奧辛同源物的總濃度為213 ± 141 pg/g-lipid,相當於12.7 ± 8.40 pg-I-TEQ/g-lipid或14.9 ± 9.26 pg-WHO-TEQ/g-lipid(N=37)。母乳中36種多氯聯苯的同源物總濃度為96.8 ± 96.0 ng/g-lipid(N=41)。藉由這些資料,我們可瞭解台南地區婦女乳汁中戴奧辛與多氯聯苯的暴露量,及用來計算嬰兒食用母乳後所暴露到之戴奧辛與多氯聯苯的量。若假設嬰兒每天食用805 mL(出生後第一及第二個月)、810 mL(出生後第三個月)及810 mL(出生後第四~六個月)的母乳,並假設嬰兒食用母乳後戴奧辛與多氯聯苯的吸收率為95%,嬰兒平均暴露到之戴奧辛的量為216 ± 129 pg-I-TEQ/day(250±148 pg-WHO-TEQ/day)。男嬰之平均暴露量為34.9 ± 20.7 pg-I-TEQ/kg/day(40.5 ± 23.8 pg-WHO-TEQ/kg/day),女嬰之平均暴露量為40.1 ± 23.8 pg-I-TEQ/kg/day(46.5±27.3 pg-WHO-TEQ/kg/day)。使用相同的模式評估嬰兒平均所暴露到之多氯聯苯的量為2671 ± 2526 ng/day,男嬰之平均暴露量為431 ± 408 ng/kg/day,女嬰之平均暴露量則為495 ± 465 ng/kg/day。
  Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are broadly distributed environmental contaminants. PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs are highly stable in the environment. They are lipophilic and can be bioaccumulated via food chain into human bodies with long half-lives of elimination. The adipose tissue, blood, and breast milk are usually analyzed for the assessment of human exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs. Among these three types of specimen, analysis of breast milk for exposure assessment provides two specific advantages. First, the collection of breast milk is noninvasive. Second, the analytical data can be used to assess the exposure of both the mother and the infant. The objectives of the study are (1) to measure the PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs levels in breast milk samples collected in Tainan area, and (2) to utilize these data to evaluate infant’s exposure via breast-feeding.
  The samples were collected from NCKU, Sin-Lau, and Chi-Mei hospitals in Tainan city. Breast milk samples were collected from 41 volunteers in these hospitals in years 2000 and 2001. Breast milk lipids were extracted by ethanol and n-hexane, followed by sulfuric acid digestion. For the analysis of 17 PCDDs/PCDFs, the extracts were fractionated with ion exchange (SCX), silica (Si), and Florisil solid phase extraction columns, and the fraction containing dioxins and furans were analyzed by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). For the analysis of PCBs, only Florisil column fractionation was used, and 36 PCB congeners were analyzed by gas chromatography electronic capture detector (GC-ECD).
  The average age of the subjects in this study was 30 years (N = 37, SD = 3.6 yrs). The total concentration of 17 dioxin congeners in the breast milk was 213 �b 141 pg/g-lipid. The concentration can be expressed as 12.7 �b 8.40 pg-I-TEQ/g-lipid when the international toxic equivalences (I-TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is calculated, or 14.6 �b 9.26 pg-WHO-TEQ/g-lipid using WHO toxic equivalences (WHO-TEQs). The total concentration of 36 PCB congeners in breast milk was 96.8 �b 96.0 ng/g-lipid. The data represent these mothers’ exposure, and infants’ exposure through breast-feeding nursing can be estimated. Assuming that the breast milk intakes per day for an infant are 805 mL in the first two months after birth, 810 mL in the third month, and 925 mL from the 4th to the 6th month respectively, with an absorption efficiency of 95 %, the average infant’s dioxin/furan exposure was estimated to be 216 �b 129 pg-I-TEQ/day (or 250 �b 148 pg-WHO-TEQ/day). Due to the weight difference between boys and girls, these values translate into 34.9 �b 20.7 pg-I-TEQ/kg/day (40.5 �b 23.8 pg-WHO-TEQ/kg/ day) for boys, and 40.1 �b 23.8 pg-I-TEQ/kg/day (46.5 �b 27.3 pg-WHO-TEQ/kg/ day) for girls. Using the same model, the average infant’s exposure to 36 PCBs was estimated to be 2671 �b 2526 ng/day, or 431 �b 408 ng/kg/day for boys and 495 �b 465 ng/kg/day for girls.
主 目 錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
中英對照表 VII
英文縮寫對照表 VIII

第一章 緒論 1
  第一節 研究緣起 2
  第二節 研究目的 4
  第三節 研究意義及重要性 5

第二章 文獻探討 6
  第一節 環境中戴奧辛與多氯聯苯的來源 7
  第二節 人體中戴奧辛與多氯聯苯之濃度探討 9
  第三節 戴奧辛與多氯聯苯之毒性 17

第三章 研究方法與材料 21
  第一節 研究設計 22
  第三節 研究材料 27

第四章 品管與品保 30
  第一節 戴奧辛之品管與品保 31
  第二節 多氯聯苯之品管與品保 35

第五章 結果與討論 37
  第一節 研究結果 38
  第二節 討論 43

第六章 結論 47
參考文獻 49


表 目 錄
表2.1 戴奧辛與多氯聯苯苯環上不同取代氯數之同源物個數 58
表2.2 多氯聯苯商品之組成資料 58
表2.3 戴奧辛同源物之國際毒性當量因子及 59
表2.4 多氯聯苯同源物之毒性當量因子 60
表2.5 美國及德國焚化爐操作員工血液中戴奧辛含量 61
表2.6 日本油症患者脂肪及肝臟中戴奧辛濃度 62
表2.7 日本油症患者體內多氯聯苯濃度 63
表2.8 一般族群之脂肪組織中戴奧辛的濃度 64
表2.9 一般族群之血液中戴奧辛的濃度 65
表2.10 1970年至2000年各國婦女乳汁中戴奧辛濃度 66
表3.1 描述性統計之樣本數計算簡表 71
表3.2 本研究所分析之戴奧辛與多氯聯苯同源物 72
表3.3 本研究分析戴奧辛所使用之回收標準品、內標準品及淨化標準品 73
表3.4 本研究分析多氯聯苯所使用之回收標準品、時間界定標準 74
表3.5 戴奧辛分析之時窗界定標準品 74
表3.6 本研究分析戴奧辛所使用之檢量線濃度及範圍 75
表3.7 戴奧辛基質添加標準品添加量及回收量之規範 76
表3.8 戴奧辛基質添加標準品添加量及回收量之規範 77
表3.9 本研究分析多氯聯苯所使用之檢量線濃度及範圍 78
表3.10 多氯聯苯基質添加標準品添加量 79
表4.1 美國環保署戴奧辛分析方法M1613B所規範之各同源物之 80
表4.2 美國環保署戴奧辛分析方法M1613B所規範之檢量線查核品管規範 81
表4.3 本研究自定之檢量線查核品管規範 82
表4.4 混合母乳中戴奧辛同源物重覆分析之結果 83
表4.5 初始精確度與回收率測試結果 84
表4.6 進行中精確度與回收率測試結果 85
表4.7 以多氯聯苯 IUPAC No. 79為基準之回收率比例回收率調整比例 86
表4.8 戴奧辛空白樣本分析之結果 87
表4.9 混合母乳中多氯聯苯同源物之重複分析結果 88
表4.9 混合母乳中多氯聯苯同源物之重複分析結果 89
表5.1 研究對象基本資料與暴露評估結果 90
表5.2 三十七個母乳樣本中17種戴奧辛同源物之濃度 91
表5.3 四十一個母乳樣本中多氯聯苯同源物之濃度 92
表5.4 各國母乳中指標多氯聯苯濃度之比較 93
表5.5 本研究之嬰兒食用母乳之戴奧辛與多氯聯苯之評估結果與文獻之比較 94



圖 目 錄
圖2.1 戴奧辛與多氯聯苯之化學結構式 96
圖2.2四氯戴奧辛2.2 2,3,7,8-TCDD之化學結構式 96
圖2.3西元1989年至2000年德國之婦女乳汁中戴奧辛濃度 97
圖2.4西元1984年至2000年德國之婦女乳汁中多氯聯苯濃度 97
圖2.5西元1970年至西元2000年各國婦女乳汁中戴奧辛的濃度 98
圖3.1 本研究之研究設計架構 99
圖3.2分析母乳樣本中之戴奧辛的前處理萃取程序 100
圖3.3分析母乳樣本中之戴奧辛的前處理淨化程序 101
圖3.4分析母乳樣本中之多氯聯苯的前處理萃取程序 102
圖3.5分析母乳樣本中之多氯聯苯的前處理淨化程序 102
圖4.1 某次儀器靈敏度測試之結果 103
圖4.2 本研究某次建立檢量線之解析度 104
圖4.3 本研究某次建立檢量線之時窗界定圖譜 105
圖4.4 本研究所分析之多氯聯苯同源物相對滯留時間層析圖譜 106
圖4.5 多氯聯苯同源物檢量線-1 107

圖4.6多氯聯苯同源物檢量線-2 108
圖4.7 各國實驗室參與Interlaboratory comparision on dioxins in food之母乳樣 本分析結果與平均值比較之Z值分布圖 109
圖5.1 母乳中戴奧辛同源物之濃度分佈圖 110
圖5.2 母乳中戴奧辛同源物之毒性當量濃度分佈圖 110
圖5.3 本研究對象之母乳中戴奧辛濃度分佈圖 111
圖5.4 研究對象之母乳中多氯聯苯濃度分佈圖 111
圖5.5 研究對象之母乳中指標多氯聯苯濃度分佈圖 111
圖5.6 行政院衛生署所公布之嬰兒生長曲線-男孩 112
圖5.7 行政院衛生署所公布之嬰兒生長曲線-女 113
圖5.8 本研究母乳中戴奧辛濃度在與各國之文獻比較 114
圖5.9 本研究與文獻中之乳汁中戴奧辛同源物之國際毒性當量濃度分布比例比較 115
圖5.10 各國婦女乳汁中指標多氯聯苯濃度圖 116
圖5.11 嬰兒出生後第N個月之平均戴奧辛暴露量(I-TEQ) 117
圖5.12 嬰兒出生後第N個月之平均戴奧辛暴露量(WHO-TEQ) 117
圖5.12 嬰兒出生後第N個月之平均多氯聯苯暴露量 118
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