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研究生:王櫻芳
研究生(外文):Ying-Fang Wang
論文名稱:瀝青拌合至鋪面過程各階段之PAHs逸散特徵與鋪面勞工之暴露評估
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of PAHs Emission from Asphalt Mixing to Road Paving and Exposure Assessment of Pavers
指導教授:蔡朋枝蔡朋枝引用關係李文智李文智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Perng-Jy TsaiWen-Jhy Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:道路鋪面暴露評估多環芳香烴化合物(PAHs)生物偵測瀝青拌合
外文關鍵詞:Biological monitoringAsphalt industryPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsPavingExposure assessment
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:31
  • 點閱點閱:646
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  • 下載下載:130
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
本研究在於瞭解瀝青在整個使用過程中包括拌合、運送、鋪築等階段,多環芳香烴化合物(Polycylclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons﹐以下簡稱PAHs)之逸散情形及勞工暴露程度。整體研究包括實驗室之試驗和現場勞工暴露調查等兩大部分。在實驗室試驗部分,本研究分別針對瀝青及再生瀝青兩種混凝土模擬瀝青整個使用過程進行加熱拌合,並以37mm玻離纖維濾紙採樣匣串連XAD-2樹脂分別對四個使用階段(瀝青加熱、拌合、運送、鋪築)所逸散之PAHs進行連續採樣及分析。研究結果顯示,四個階段之PAHs排放係數分別約為0.76、2.55、0.27、0.04,因此可知以第二階段之逸散為最主要之逸散源。
在道路鋪面勞工PAHs實際暴露評估方面,本研究針對四個相似暴露族群,共計28名勞工實施個人PAHs呼吸及皮膚暴露採樣、生物偵測與氣膠粒徑分佈採樣,結果發現四個相似暴露族群勞工所暴露到的總PAHs平均濃度分別為,鋪裝機駕駛:2438.49 ng/m3、鋪面勞工:2337.74 ng/m3、鐵輪駕駛:2684.55 ng/m3、膠輪駕駛:2334.66 ng/m3。本研究發現這四區勞工所暴露之PAHs以氣相為主要的暴露源及二、三環之低分子量PAHs為主,並發現其致肺癌與皮膚癌風險分別介於3.81×10-4∼1.79×10-3及0.07×10-6∼4.22×10-5之間,因此針對道路鋪面勞工之保護宜由呼吸暴露之防範為優先進行,另外整個作業環境之主要懸浮微粒是以小粒徑為主,同時也發現勞工之頭區、胸腔區及肺泡區PAHs之暴露比例約為1:1:3。在環境偵測與生物偵測方面,經由多變相線性回歸發現結合PAHs之氣固相呼吸道暴露與皮膚量,可有效解釋勞工工作週結束後尿中1-hydroxypyrene含量之變異89%,1-hydroxypyrene此生物指標亦可有效來評估道路鋪面勞工暴露PAHs之情形。
This study was set out to assess both the emissions of and workers’ exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) resulting from the heating, mixing, transportation, and paving processes in the asphalt industries via both the laboratory and field sampling approaches.
In the laboratory, both fresh and recycled asphalt were tested in a pilot facility to simulate the whole industrial process. PAH emissions from the above four industrial processes (i.e., heating, mixing, transportation, and paving) were sampled using a sampling train consisting a 37-mm filter cassette, followed by a XAD-2 sorbent tube. Results show that the emission factors for the above processes were 0.76, 2.55, 0.27, and 0.04 ng/kg·asphalt cement, respectively, indicating that the mixing stage was the most contributor for the asphalt process.
The field study was conducted on paving workers. A total of 28 workers were selected from four similar exposure groups (SEGs), including the paving machine operators, screedmen, iron roller drivers, and rubber roller drivers. Thorough PAH exposure assessments were conducted on each selected worker, including personal inhalable sampling, dermal exposure, biological monitoring, and particle size segregating sampling. Results show that total-PAH exposure levels for the four SEGs were 2438.49, 2337.74, 2684.55, and 2334.66 ng/m3, respectively. The gas- and particle-phase PAHs accounted respectively for A~B% and C~D% of total inhalatory PAH exposures for these four SEGs. The ratio of particle-phase PAHs deposited on the head, thoracic, alveolar regions was found as 1 : 1 : 3, indicating that particle-phase PAHs were dominated by the fine fraction. The estimated lung cancer and skin cancer risks for all paving workers were 3.81x10-4 ~1.79x10-3 and 0.07x10-6 ~4.22x10-5, respectively, indicating the preventing strategy should be focused on inhalatory exposures, rather than on the dermal exposures. By conducting multivariate linear regression analyses, this study found that the combination of both inhalatory and dermal exposures would be able to explain the variations of workers’ uninary 1-hydroxylpyrene (1-OHP) levels (collected at the end of workweek) up to 89%. The above result clearly indicates that 1-OHP was a useful biomarker for assessing workers’ PAH exposure levels for paving workers.
總目錄
總目錄Ⅳ
表目錄Ⅵ
圖目錄Ⅷ
第一章 前 言 1
1-1. 研究背景 1
1-2. 研究目的 3

第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1. 多環芳香烴化合物4
2-2. PAHs之健康危害6
2-3. 瀝青作業與PAHs暴露 9
2-4. PAHs之採樣與分析技術12
2-5. 健康風險評估16

第三章 研究方法與設備 27
3-1. 研究架構27
3-2. 採樣方法28
3-3. 樣本分析33
3-4. 數據分析37

第四章 研究品質控制 54
4-1. PAHs的空氣採樣及分析之品質控制54
4-2. 尿液中1-hydroxypyrene分析之品質管制57

第五章 結果與討論 71
5-1. 瀝青拌合至鋪面過程各階段之PAHs逸散特徵與逸散量71
5-2. 道路鋪面勞工個人PAHs暴露特徵72
5-3 道路鋪面勞工個人尿中1-Hydroxypyrene之暴露濃度74
5-4 道路鋪面勞工健康風險評估75
5-5 不同業區環境氣膠與總PAHs的粒徑分佈情形76
5-6 道路鋪面勞工環境暴露與生物偵測結果之相關性76

第六章 結論與建議 101
6-1. 結論101
6-2. 建議102

第七章 參考文獻 103

表目錄
表2-1 二十二種PAHs之縮寫、化學式、分子量及化學結構式20
表2-1 二十二種PAHs之縮寫、化學式、分子量及化學結構式(續)21
表2-2 PAHs之物化特性及親電性反應值Eπ22
表2-3 紫外光偵測器偵測不同溫度下瀝青及煤柏油中PAHs的相對含量23
表2-4 EPA(1986)建議皮膚貼試之身體部位表17
表2-5 PAHs與等當量(BaPeq)之個別致癌比例一覽表25
表3-1 四種不同級配之粒料配比43
表3-2 Marple 290系列的個人階梯衝擊式採樣器之攔截粒徑dae44
表3-3 二十二種PAHs依分子量大小及苯環環數之分類表45
表4-1 實驗材料與溶劑空白實驗59
表4-2 二十二種PAHs於GC/MS滯留時間之平均值與標準偏差60
表4-3 五種內標準品於GC/MS滯留時間之平均值與標準偏差61
表4-4 二十二種PAHs標準品之成份及濃度62
表4-5 二十二種PAHs標準品及五種內標準品稀釋20倍之GC/MS圖譜積分面積63
表4-6 二十二種PAHs標準品回收率之精密度與準確度64
表4-7 GC/MS之方法偵測極限65
表4-8 1-hydroxypyrene的回收率66
表4-9 HPLC/FLD之方法偵測極限66
表5-1 四個階段逸散之總PAHs濃度值(ng/m3)79
表5-2 四個階段PAHs氣固相比率(ratio)80
表5-3 四個階段逸散之低、中、高分子量PAHs佔總PAHs之百分比(%)81
表5-4 四個階段之ER (ng/min) 及EF (mg/公噸-產品)82
表5-5 鋪裝機區勞工PAHs的暴露實態(Exposure profile)83
表5-6 鋪面區勞工PAHs的暴露實態(Exposure profile)84
表5-7 鐵輪區勞工PAHs的暴露實態(Exposure profile)85
表5-8 膠輪區勞工PAHs的暴露實態(Exposure profile)86
表5-9 四個工作區之氣固相PAHs的平均濃度值與比值87
表5-10 四個作業區勞工呼吸道暴露之低、中、高分子量PAHs佔總PAHs之百分比(%)88
表5-11 四工作區身體不同部位之總PAHs平均暴露量(ng/cm2).89
表5-12 研究對象之尿中1-hydroxypyrene增量情形90
表5-13 道路鋪面勞工致肺癌之健康風險值推估91
表5-14 道路鋪面勞工致皮膚癌之健康風險值推估92
表5-15 總PAHs與環境氣膠之細懸浮微粒與粗懸浮微粒之比值.93
表5-16 利用粒徑分佈推估不同呼吸區域之濃度94
表5-16 利用粒徑分佈推估不同呼吸區域之濃度(續)95


圖目錄
圖2-1 熱半瀝青混凝土生產及使用流程26
圖3-1A 瀝青混凝土加熱拌合模擬裝置之設計圖46
圖3-1B 瀝青混凝土加熱拌合模擬裝置46
圖3-2 瀝青混凝土生產製造及使用之四個phase47
圖3-3 PAHs捕集系統48
圖3-4 研究架構49
圖 3-5 Marple 298型八階Anderson粒徑分佈採樣器50
圖 3-6 勞工個人採樣裝置配戴示意圖51
圖 3-7 IOM可吸入性氣膠採樣52
圖 3-8 PAHs之分析測定流程53
圖4-1 Nap、AcPy、AcP、Flu、PA、Ant、FL、Pyr於GC/ MS之檢量線67
圖4-2 BaA、CHR、BbF、BkF、BaP、IND、DBA、Bghip於GC/ MS之檢量線68
圖4-3 CYC、BeP、PER、BbC、COR、DBP於GC/ MS之檢量線69
圖4-4 1-hydroxypyrene於HPLC/FLD 之檢量線70
圖5-1 鋪裝機、鋪面、鐵輪、膠輪四區勞工暴露總PAHs之濃度分佈圖96
圖5-2 低、中、高分子量PAHs佔總PAHs之百分比96
圖5-3 四工作區勞工之皮膚暴露量分佈圖97
圖5-4 個人pyrene暴露濃度與總PAHs暴露濃度之相關性98
圖5-5 第一天勞工暴露氣相(Cgas)和固相(Cinh)PAHs與尿中1-OHP之關係圖99
圖5-6 第一天勞工暴露氣相(Cgas)、固相(Cinh)PAHs和皮膚(Cskin)與尿中1-OHP之關係圖99
圖5-7 工作週後勞工暴露氣相(Cgas)和固相(Cinh)PAHs與尿中1-OHP之關係圖100
圖5-8 工作週後勞工暴露氣相(Cgas)、固相(Cinh)PAHs和皮膚(Cskin)與尿中1-OHP之關係圖100
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