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研究生:陳美如
研究生(外文):Mei-Ru Chen
論文名稱:高速公路收費站人員及加油站作業員工揮發性有機物質之暴露危害評估
論文名稱(外文):Exposure and health-risk assessment for the Toll-way Station Booth Attendants and Gas Station Workers exposed to Volatile Organic Compounds
指導教授:蔡朋枝蔡朋枝引用關係李俊璋李俊璋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Perng-Jy TsaiChing-Chang Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:加油站人員揮發性有機物健康風險評估相似暴露族群高速公路收費站人員
外文關鍵詞:toll-way station booth attendantshealth risk assessmentsimilar exposure groupgasoline workersvolatile organic compounds
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長期以來,已有許多研究針對暴露到油品揮發逸散、或機動車輛引擎廢氣所排放揮發性有機物質(Volatile Organic Compounds;VOCs)之職業和非職業族群進行暴露評估,然有關高速公路收費站員工之暴露仍有待調查與研究。有鑑於直接量測VOC相當耗時,所以本研究將設法嘗試利用車流率以推估勞工之暴露量。有關加油站員工之VOCs暴露部分,由於油氣回收設備之裝設,應有助於勞工暴露之減量,因此,本研究的第二部份主要探討有及無油氣回收設備之加油站勞工暴露量之差異,同時亦探討不同公司油品之加油站勞工暴露量之差異。
經對收費站採樣分析後發現,小型車回數票與小型車找零車道收費亭之VOCs濃度,無論在早班、中班或晚班,在統計上並無顯著差異(p>0.05),但此二者卻明顯大於大客車/貨車車道收費亭濃度(p<0.05)。小型車回數票車道、小型車找零車道、或大客車/貨車車道收費亭之晚班各VOCs濃度,均明顯低於早班及中班濃度(P<0.05),但早班及中班濃度則無明顯差異(P>0.05)。各類車道收費亭各VOCs濃度不只受到車流率影響外,亦受到收費方式及車輛種類所影響。車流率可有效解釋各類車道收費亭各VOCs濃度達36∼72﹪。相同工作時段之工作人員可視為相似暴露族群。早班與中班收費人員之五種VOCs濃度,在統計上並無顯著差異(p>0.05),但此兩者卻明顯高於晚班收費人員(p<0.05)。收費人員VOCs暴露濃度與其他相似排放來源(即機動車輛排放)之暴露族群約略相仿,但均小於與油品揮發逸散的暴露族群(例如加油站)。三種工作時段收費人員之Benzene及MTBE吸入暴露之致癌風險並不顯著(即致癌風險<1×10-6),且非致癌風險之總危害指標值小於1,顯示在現行階段收費站人員的VOCs暴露仍可被接受。
經對加油站採樣分析後發現,使用有油氣回收設備加油槍之加油員VOCs暴露量低於使用無油氣回收設備加油槍之加油員(p<0.05),經發油量校正後,結果亦同。F公司油品加油員VOCs暴露量皆高於C公司油品加油員(p<0.05),經發油量校正後發現不同公司油品之加油員VOCs暴露量無差異(p>0.05)。無法比較不同公司油品加油站之加油員VOCs暴露量之差異,因與個人暴露量與油品成分含量之變異有關。不同油品加油站加油員Benzene及MTBE吸入暴露之終生致癌風險皆大於一般人所能接受的致癌風險:1×10-6,且非致癌風險之總危害指標皆大於1,顯示加油員之健康需進一步的保護。
Many studies have been conducted on both occupational and non-occupational groups associated with VOC exposures from both gasoline vapor emissions and motor vehicle emissions. However, the VOC exposure levels for toll-way station booth attendants have never been assessed and hence need further investigation. However, considering direct measuring VOC exposure levels in the field is costly and labor consuming, the present study was also set out to develop an indirect method for predicting VOC exposure levels. For gas station, vapour recovery facilities has been introduced to reduce VOC emissions during the gasoline filling process. The second objective of this study was to compare workers’ VOC exposure levels at two kinds of gas station with and without vapour recovery facilities.
Toll-way station results show that each of the five VOC contents obtained from both the car lane/ticket-collecting and car lane/cash-collecting booth at the same workshift were quite comparable, but the above values were significantly higher than that obtained from the bus/truck lane booth. For any given type of lane booth, each of the five target VOC contents collected during both the day shift and night shift were quite comparable, but the above values were significantly higher than that collected during the late-night shift. The five target VOC contents in any given type of lane booth were not only affected by its vehicle flowrate, but also affected by its working procedure and the type of vehicle passing through. The vehicle flowrates were able to explained the variation of VOC exposure levels up to 36%~72%. As compared to other workplaces, VOC contents found in the three types of lane booth were comparable with those VOC levels associated with motor vehicle emission sources. The exposure profile of booth attendants for any given workshift can be regarded as a similar exposure group .The exposure levels found in this study were quite comparable with those VOC exposure levels directly associated with vehicle engine exhausts, but were lower than those exposure levels directly associated with gasoline vapor emissions. The carcinogenic risks posed by both benzene and MTBE on booth attendants were not significant (i.e., carcinogenic risks < 10-6), the noncarcinogenic risk are lower than 1, which suggests that VOC exposure levels for booth attendants might be still acceptable at the current stage.
Gas station results show that the workers in gas stations without vapour recovery facilities are higher than workers in gas stations with vapour recovery facilities. The VOCs exposure levels of F gas station workers are higher than in C workers. After being calibrated by their oil dispatching amounts, the difference between workers at two kinds of gas station were nonsignificant. The above results might because workers’ exposure levels were not only affected by the variation of personal exposure, but also affected by the VOC contents of gasoline. The carcinogenic risks posed by both benzene and MTBE on gasoline workers were significant (i.e., carcinogenic risks >10-6), the noncarcinogenic risk are higher than 1, and thereby the potential health-hazards of gasoline workers might worth further protection in the future.
總 目 錄
摘要…………………………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
致謝…………………………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
總目錄………………………………………………………………………………..Ⅳ
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………. ..Ⅶ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………..Ⅹ
第一章緒論
1-1 研究緣起………………………………………………………………………….1
1-2 研究目的………………………………………………………………………….2
第二章文獻回顧
2-1 VOCs之健康危害……………………………………………………………….. 4
2-2 VOCs之暴露族群………………………………………………………………...6
2-3 VOCs之法定標準………………………………………………………………...7
2-4 VOCs之健康危害風險評估……………………………………………………...7
第三章 研究方法與設備
3-1 研究架構………………………………………………………………………. 10
3-2 採樣策略………………………………………………………………………. 10
3-3 空氣中VOCs分析方法…………………………………………………………..12
3-4 空氣中VOCs品保品管方法……………………………………………………..13
3-5資料分析………………………………………………………………………….15
第四章 研究品質控制
4-1 VOCs分析之品保品管執行成果………………………………………………..17
第五章 結果與討論
5-1收費站
5-1-1三種類型車道收費亭在同班次之VOCs濃度比較…………………………...19
5-1-2同一類型車道在三種不同班次之VOCs濃度比較…………………………...19
5-1-3 VOCs之組成…………………………………………………………….…..20
5-1-4 預估不同類型車道之VOCs濃度……………………………………………..21
5-1-5 三種工作時段的收費人員VOCs暴露實態(exposure profile)…………22
5-1-6 三種工作時段的收費人員VOCs暴露情形之比較…………………………..23
5-1-7 三種工作時段收費人員VOCs暴露情形之重要性…………………………..24
5-1-8 三種工作時段收費人員之健康危害風險評估………………………………25
5-2 加油站
5-2-1 使用有無具備油氣回收設備加油槍之加油員VOCs暴露濃度比較………26
5-2-2 使用有油氣回收設備加油槍之不同油品加油站加油員VOCs暴露濃度比較……………………………………………………………………………..28
5-2-3 使用無油氣回收設備加油槍之不同油品加油站加油員VOCs暴露濃度比較……………………………………………………………………………..29
5-2-4 不同公司油品加油站加油員VOCs暴露濃度………………………………29
5-2-5 VOCs之組成……………………………………………………………….30
5-2-6 加油員VOCs暴露情形之重要性……………………………………………31
5-2-7 加油員VOCs暴露之健康風險評估…………………………………………32
第六章 結論與建議
6-1 結論……………………………………………………………………………...36
6-2 建議……………………………………………………………………………...37
第七章 參考文獻……………………………………………………………………39
附錄一收費站員工輪值車道工作時間表………………………………………….80

表 目 錄
表2-1不同作業場所之作業人員VOCs暴露濃度…………………………………..47
表4-1收費站空氣VOCs各成分之檢量線配製濃度範圍及迴歸係數(R2)………48
表4-2收費站空氣VOCs分析品保品管執行結果…………………………………..48
表4-3加油站空氣VOCs各成分之檢量線配製濃度範圍及迴歸係數(R2)………49
表4-4加油站空氣VOCs分析品保品管執行結果…………………………………..49
表5-1小型車回數票、小型車找零和大客車/貨車等三種車道收費亭內在早班(08:00∼
16:00)之Benzene、Ethylbenzene、Toluene、Xylene、MTBE及Total-VOCs之濃度
(ppb)………………………………………..……....................50
表5-2小型車回數票、小型車找零和大客車/貨車等三種車道收費亭內在中班(16:00∼
24:00)之Benzene、Ethylbenzene、Toluene、Xylene、MTBE及 Total-VOCs之濃度
(ppb)…………………………………………..…....................51
表5-3小型車回數票、小型車找零和大客車/貨車等三種車道收費亭內在晚班(24:00∼
08:00)之Benzene、Ethylbenzene、Toluene、Xylene、MTBE及Total-VOCs之濃度
(ppb)………………………………………….….....................52
表5-4 機動車輛排放BTEX之比例 (平均值±標準偏差)……………….…….53
表5-5 小型車回數票、小型車找零和大客車/貨車等三種車道收費亭內在早班(08:00∼
16:00)、中班(16:00∼24:00)及晚班(24:00∼08:00)等時段,在採樣期間
(04/01/89∼11/01/89)之車流率……………………………….........53
表5-6三種不同類型車道Benzene濃度(Y:ppb)與各相關參數多變項線性迴歸分析結
果……………………………………………………………………........54
表5-7三種不同類型車道Toluene濃度(Y:ppb)與各相關參數多變項線性迴歸分析結
果……………......………………………………………………………..55
表5-8三種不同類型車道Ethylbenzene(Y:ppb)與各相關參數多變項線性迴歸分析結
果......……………………………………………………………………..56
表5-9三種不同類型車道Xylene(Y:ppb)與各相關參數多變項線性迴歸分析結
果....………………………………………………………………………..57
表5-10三種不同類型車道MTBE(Y:ppb)與各相關參數多變項線性迴歸分析結
果..…………………………………………………………………………..58
表5-11三種不同類型車道Total-VOCs(Y:ppb)與各相關參數多變項線性迴歸分析結
果....…………………………………………………………………......59
表5-12 休息室各VOCs濃度(ppb)……………………………………….………59
表5-13收費站收費人員早、中及晚班VOCs暴露濃度(ppb)……………………60
表5-14收費站人員在早班 (08:00∼16:00)、中班 (16:00∼24:00) 及晚班 (24:00∼08:00)
等工作時段,於採樣期間之車流率…..….………………………………60
表5-15收費站收費人員VOCs吸入暴露之致癌與非致癌風險 (平均值及95﹪信賴區間)
…………………………………………………………………….........61
表5-16加油站加油員VOCs暴露濃度(ppb)………………………….………...61
表5-17採樣期間加油站發油量(L)…………………………..…………………62
表5-18加油站加油員VOCs暴露濃度經發油量校正為加油員單位加油量之VOCs暴露濃度
(103ppb/L)……..………………………………………………...........62
表5-19 加油站加油員Benzene吸入暴露致癌風險評估 (平均值及95﹪信賴區間)(白血
病)...........………………………………..………………….……….63
表5-20 加油站加油員MTBE吸入暴露致癌風險評估(平均值及95﹪信賴區間)(腎小管細胞
腺瘤及惡性腫瘤)…...............……………………………..………63
表5-21 加油站加油員MTBE吸入暴露致癌風險評估(平均值及95﹪信賴區間)(睪丸細胞間
隙腫瘤)…..............…………………………………………….…..63
表5-22 加油站加油員MTBE吸入暴露之危害指標值(平均值及95﹪信賴區間)
….......………………………………………………………………….….63
表5-23 加油站加油員Toluene吸入暴露之危害指標值 (平均值及95﹪信賴區間)
….......……………………………………………………………………..64
表5-24 加油站加油員Ethylbenzene吸入暴露之危害指標值(平均值及95﹪信賴區)
.......………………………………………………………..………………64
表5-25加油站加油員Xylene吸入暴露之危害指標值(平均值及95﹪信賴區間)….
.........………………………………………………………………….….64
表5-26 加油站加油員VOCs吸入暴露之總危害指標值 (平均值及95﹪信賴區間)
…………………………………..……......……………………………….64
圖 目 錄
圖3-1收費站研究架構圖……………………………………………………………65
圖3-2收費站研究架構圖……………………………………………………………66
圖4-1空氣VOCs之GC/FID分析圖譜 (濃度為10μg/m3)....………………….67
圖4-2收費站空氣中揮發性有機物質檢量線圖……………………………………68
圖4-3加油站空氣中揮發性有機物質檢量線圖……………………………………71
圖5-1小型車回數票、小型車找零和大客車/貨車車道三種不同類型車道,Benzene、Ethyl
benzene、Toluene、Xylene及MTBE濃度佔Total-VOCs之比例(平均值 ±標準偏差)
............................……………………………………………74
圖5-2 收費站人員早、中及晚班Benzene、Ethyl benzene、Toluene、Xylene及MTBE濃度佔
Total-VOCs之比例(平均值 ±標準偏差).............……………..75
圖5-3 三種工作時段的收費人員VOCs暴露濃度與車流率之相關性.…………..76
圖5-4 C廠與F廠油品加油站加油員Benzene、Ethyl benzene、Toluene、Xylene及MTBE濃度
佔Total-VOCs之比例 (平均值 ±標準偏差)…………..............79
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