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研究生:蘇雅鈞
研究生(外文):Ya-Chen Su
論文名稱:築爐員工游離二氧化矽暴露評估與健康效應評估
論文名稱(外文):The Development of Exposure Assessment and Health Effect Assessment for Oven Construction Workers Exposure to Free Silica
指導教授:蔡朋枝蔡朋枝引用關係郭育良郭育良引用關係
指導教授(外文):Perng-Jy TsaiYue-Liang Guo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:相似暴露族群肺功能游離二氧化矽風險評估築爐工人
外文關鍵詞:Oven construction workersLung function.Risk assessmentFree-silicaSimilar exposure group
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本研究欲以鋼鐵廠之築爐工人為研究對象,針對其作業場所員工結晶型二氧化矽暴露情況,健康效應,及風險評估進行探討。經對作業場所進行勘查以了解勞工之可能暴露情形後,選定煉鐵製程之熱風爐,煉焦爐;煉鋼製程之盛鋼桶與鋼液分裝器等員工分別為8個相似暴露群(Similar Exposure Group; SEG)。
經粉塵及游離二氧化矽之暴露評估結果發現:築爐員工同製程但不同相似暴露族群之游離二氧化矽暴露情況亦不同。煉鐵製程中以熱風爐拆爐之情況最為嚴重,其可呼吸性粉塵,石英,方矽石與磷矽石之濃度各為2.474 mg/m3, 0.052 mg/m3, 0.416 mg/m3與0.880 mg/m3。煉焦爐蓄熱室拆爐次之,其濃度分別為1.724 mg/m3, 0.178 mg/m3, 0.138 mg/m3與ND。煉鋼製程部分之盛鋼桶與鋼液分裝器之築爐員工其游離二氧化矽暴露濃度均遠較小於煉鐵製程,其原因可能為原物料含游離二氧化矽較少與該築爐作業形態不同所致。
健康效應結果發現尿液中PGF2a與可呼吸性粉塵具有低度正相關(r2=0.12),但具統計上之意義(p=0.014)。在粒徑分布與尿液中PGF2a發現就質量濃度而言,其MMAD介於3.5-1.55mm與6.0-3.5mm兩種範圍之間的可呼吸性粉塵之與尿液中PGF2a較具貢獻力;而個數濃度與表面積濃度方面則皆無發現其相關性具統計上意義者,究其原因可能為樣本數太少。肺功能檢測部分發現控制組與暴露組之FEF75%(p=0.042) ,MEFR (p=0.045)與FEF75-85% (p=0.016),p 值皆小於0.05具顯著差異。此外,本研究亦發現可呼吸性石英暴露濃度與FEF25%與MEFR相關,其r2值各為 0.102與 0.106,但p值皆為0.021(具統計上之意義);其為低度負相關表示石英暴露量愈高則FEF25%與MEFR之檢測值愈低。最後本研究進行致矽肺病風險度計算,發現仍以煉鐵製程熱風爐與煉焦爐拆爐員工之風險度較高,不僅超出美國最高法院的風險度定義10-3,亦比NIOSH 或ACGIH所規定的游離二氧化矽總合所計算出的風險度 (Risk=1.452-2.805×10-2) 還高。因此有待未來提出合適之策略來加以控制。
In this study, oven construction workers in a steel manufacturing plant were selected in order to assess their free silica exposure levels, and associated health-comes and health-risks. After conducting a walkthrough survey, a total of two industrial processes (i.e., iron-making and steel-making processes) were included. Workers in the above two processes were further classified into 8 similar exposure groups (SEGs).
For dust and free silica exposure assessment, result shows that significant differences were found among various SEGs even in the same industrial process. Both dust and free silica exposure levels for all SEGs in the iron-making process were the higher than that in steel-making process. Among them, the highest was found for hot stove workers with exposure levels for respirable dust, quartz, cristobalite, and tridymite as 2.474, 0.052, 0.416, and 0.880 mg/m3, respectively. The coke oven checker room workers had the second highest exposures with exposure levels as 1.724, 0.178, 0.138, and ND mg/m3, respectively. The steel-making process workers had lower exposure levels was thought due to both the involved raw materials containing less free silica contents and its intrinsic difference on working procedures.
Regarding the health effect, we found that workers’ urinary PGF2a levels had a poor correlation with their respirable dust correlations, but still was statistically significant (r2=0.12; p=0.014). Lung function parameters of FEF75%, MEFR, FEF75-85% between the controls (not exposure group) and exposure groups were statistically significant difference (p= 0.042, 0.045, and 0.016, respectively). In addition, FEF25% and MEFR were found with a negative correlation (regression coefficient= 0.102 and 0.106, respectively) with workers’ quartz exposure levels (both with a p-value of 0.021). The above results suggest that the higher quartz exposures, the lower FEF25% and MEFR would be detected from the exposed workers. The first two highest silicosis risk was found in the hot stove workers and coke oven workers (Risk=1.452-2.805×10-2, respectively) among the 8 SEGs. The above estimated risk was higher than the significant risk level (10-3) as that defined by US Supreme Court in 1980 indicating that proper control strategy should be deployed in the future.
目錄
第一章 緒論 1
壹、研究緣起 1
貳、研究目的 2
參、研究意義與重要性 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
壹、何謂游離二氧化矽 4
貳、游離二氧化矽之危害特性 5
參、游離二氧化矽之暴露行業 9
肆、游離二氧化矽之相關法令規範 11
伍、游離二氧化矽之毒理機制與動力學 11
陸、游離二氧化矽之生物偵測 14
柒、游離二氧化矽之健康危害風險評估 15
第三章 研究方法 20
壹、研究內容 20
一、針對築爐工人游離二氧化矽之暴露評估 20
二、築爐工人健康效應之評估 20
貳、研究對象 20
一、樣本數估算 20
二、採樣對象選擇 21
參、採樣策略與方法 22
一、空氣樣本之採樣 22
二、耐火材料與地板粉塵採樣 24
三、勞工生物性樣本採樣 24
四、勞工肺功能檢測部分 24
五、問卷調查部分 25
肆、樣本分析方法 26
一、游離二氧化矽與粉塵部分 26
二、尿液中8-epi-PGF2a部分 31
伍、樣本分析之品質控制 36
一、空氣部分 36
二、尿液部分 38
三、肺功能部分 39
陸、數據處理 39
一、暴露評估 39
二、健康效應評估 41
第四章 結果與討論 43
壹、築爐工人游離二氧化矽之暴露評估 43
一、築爐員工粉塵及游離二氧化矽暴露資料 43
二、築爐員工粉塵及游離二氧化矽分粒採樣(粒徑分布) 46
三、築爐員工致矽肺病之風險 47
貳、築爐工人游離二氧化矽之健康效應評估 47
一、暴露族群基本資料與問卷調查結果 47
二、築爐員工尿液中PGF2a 49
三、築爐員工之肺功能 50
第五章結論與建議 53
參考文獻 57

圖目錄
圖2-1二氧化矽、結晶型與非結晶形二氧化矽之分子結構圖 69
圖2-2二氧化矽的結晶型態 (SILICON-OXYGEN TETRAHEDRON) 70
圖2-3呼吸系統的三個區域 71
圖2-4矽肺病與肺癌之治病機轉 72
圖2-5 ARACHIDONIC ACID的脂質會經由自由基的非酵素形成F2-ISOPROSTANE REGIO-ISOMERS;其中REGIO-ISOMER IV 為8-EPI-PGF2a STEREPISOMER。 73
圖3-1研究架構 74
圖3-2石英檢量線(25-700 mG) 75
圖3-3方矽石檢量線(50-750 mG) 75
圖3-4磷矽石檢量線(100-3000 mG) 75
圖3-5游離二氧化矽(含石英,方矽石與磷矽石)之標準品圖譜 76
圖3-6暴露組尿液中PGF2a之檢量線 (1.5-0.006 NG/ML) 77
圖3-7暴露組尿液中PGF2a之檢量線 (0.5-0.001 NG/ML) 77
圖4-1鋼鐵廠築爐員工整體粉塵與游離二氧化矽暴露量分布情形 78
圖4-2鋼鐵廠築爐員工粉塵與游離二氧化矽暴露濃度超出法令百分比情形 78



表目錄
表2-1 游離二氧化矽物理化學特性 89
表2-2 國外游離二氧化矽作業場所暴露資料 90
表2-3 作業場所游離二氧化矽之相關法令規範 91
表2-4 目前我國粉塵容許濃度標準 91
表2-5 MIUR游離二氧化矽累積風險模式參數推估值 92
表3-1實驗室紀錄 93
表3-2採樣工具清單 94
表3-3 採樣紀錄 95
表3-4 回收率紀錄 96
表3-5 內標準品添加紀錄 97
表3-6品保品管結果彙整 98
表3-6品保品管結果彙整(續) 98
表4-2空氣樣本築爐員工暴露情形(可呼吸性粉塵) 99
表4-3空氣樣本築爐員工暴露情形(可呼吸性游離二氧化矽-石英) 99
表4-4空氣樣本築爐員工暴露情形(可呼吸性游離二氧化矽-方矽石) 100
表4-5空氣樣本築爐員工暴露情形(可呼吸性游離二氧化矽-磷矽石) 100
表4-6空氣樣本築爐員工暴露粉塵與游離二氧化矽濃度超出容許濃度比 101
表4-7築爐員工暴露量以國內法規之可呼性粉塵部分區分為三種型態 102
表4-8築爐員工暴露量超過法定容許標準之比例 102
表4-9游離二氧化矽佔可呼吸性粉塵之重量濃度百分比 103
表4-10地板粉塵與耐火磚材部分(煉鐵製程之熱風爐) 104
表4-11地板粉塵與耐火磚材部分(煉鐵製程之煉焦爐) 105
表4-12地板粉塵與耐火磚材部分(煉鋼製程之鋼液分裝器) 106
表4-13地板粉塵與耐火磚材部分(煉鋼製程之盛鋼桶) 106
表4-14築爐員工粉塵及游離二氧化矽之粒徑分布 107
表4-15築爐員工致矽肺病之風險度 108
表4-16描述行統計之研究族群之基本資料(含平均值與標準偏差) 109
表4-17區分控制組與暴露組 109
表4-18控制組與暴露組之間尿液中PGF2a之差異 110
表4-19尿液中PGF2a與粉塵游離二氧化矽之相關性 110
表4-20尿液中PGF2a與可呼性粉塵各MMAD之間的相關性(I) 111
表4-21尿液中PGF2a與可呼性粉塵各MMAD之間的相關性(II) 111
表4-22控制組與暴露組之肺功能檢測值 112
表4-23控制組與暴露組之間肺功能檢測之差異 112
表4-24各暴露濃度與肺功能檢測值 (FEF25%與MEFR) 之相關性 113
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