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研究生:吳懿霖
研究生(外文):Yi-Lin Wu
論文名稱:北部地區都市垃圾焚化爐歲修清爐勞工戴奧辛暴露評估
論文名稱(外文):Assessment of Dioxins Exposure of Contract Workers for Incinerator Maintenance in North of Taiwan
指導教授:李俊璋李俊璋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Chang Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:血液中多氯戴奧辛及口夫喃免疫指標荷爾蒙都市垃圾焚化爐歲修清爐員工
外文關鍵詞:hormonecontracted maintain workersimmunofluorescence stainingmunicipal waste incineratorPCDD/Fs
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:9
  • 點閱點閱:735
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:114
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
多氯戴奧辛及口夫喃(polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran, PCDD/Fs)為已知毒性最強之化學物質的一種。近年來,許多研究探討證實都市垃圾焚化爐排放的廢氣及灰渣皆含有具毒性的戴奧辛。而除了操作員工外,停爐歲修之外包勞工在清理維修爐體及相關設備時有可能暴露到高濃度的戴奧辛。因此本研究針對北部三座焚化廠之外包歲修清爐員工進行戴奧辛暴露量測採樣分析,以評估勞工作業中之暴露情形。藉由本研究結果,提出適當之建議提供勞工及廠方作為改善之方法。
本研究選取北部A、B、C三座焚化爐在停爐時負責清理維修之員工共31名作為研究對象,進行三廠焚化爐停爐歲修前、後血液中戴奧辛採樣分析,以瞭解清爐暴露之情形,但由於歲修維修時程的關係,A廠只收集到歲修後樣本。本研究共完成48份血清樣本之採集,各項樣品均進行戴奧辛、一般臨床生化、荷爾蒙及免疫指標等檢驗分析,同時利用問卷調查員工健康基本資料、飲食、時間活動模式等可能影響員工暴露的相關因子,以建立該族群之基本暴露量資料。研究所採集之戴奧辛樣本分析主要是依據美國環保署 Method 1613B 及環保署 NIEA A808.70B 等方法進行,以高解析度氣象層析儀及高解析度質譜儀(High Resolution Gas Chromatography / High Resolution Mass, HRGC/MS)分析樣本。
本研究之研究對象中有29位男性及2位女性員工,各廠平均清爐次數為11.8、6.9及4.6次。在生化檢驗結果顯示,三廠員工尿酸(Uric Acid, UA)、膽固醇(Cholesterol, Chol)及三酸甘油脂(Triglyceride, TG)異常數最多。在荷爾蒙檢驗結果則是三廠員工甲狀腺相關荷爾蒙(T3、T4、TSH)、Testosterone及Estradiol(E2)均在正常值範圍內,惟在B廠,T4及E2荷爾蒙值工作後顯著低於清爐前之濃度。在免疫指標分析方面,分析CD3/CD4,CD3/CD8,CD3/CD25及CD26等項目,以進爐前後區分時,在CD3/CD8及CD26項目於工作後螢光染色之比例顯著增加,顯示歲修清爐員工在工作後可能因受到外來物的刺激進而引起體內免疫系統T Cell及T-help Cell活化。在血中戴奧辛濃度分析方面,三廠歲修清爐員工進爐工作前、後血中PCDD/Fs總毒性當量濃度並無統計上顯著差異,進爐工作後平均值分別為:A廠21.5 pg-I-TEQ/g-lipid、B廠26.4 pg-I-TEQ/g-lipid)、C廠20.5 pg-I-TEQ/g-lipid。依血液中PCDD/Fs含量推估,A、B及C三廠外包歲修清爐員工終生平均暴露劑量分別為2.7, 3.3及2.5 pg-I-TEQ/kg/day。
研究結果顯示,T4及E2荷爾蒙值及CD3/CD8及CD26免疫指標值於歲修前、後有顯著改變;在PCDD/Fs濃度檢測部分,勞工血中PCDD/Fs濃度值高於一般居民,且濃度較高之勞工於工作時配帶呼吸防護器具時數較少;血液中PCDD/Fs含量推估終生平均暴露劑量雖符合世界衛生組織建議之容忍值1~4 pg-I-TEQ/kg/day內,但屬較高之際量範圍,故建議未來應定期追蹤勞工血中戴奧辛濃度及定期健康檢查,清爐時應全程配戴個人呼吸防護具減少作業時之暴露,以確保勞工健康。
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are chemically and biologically similar compounds and highly toxic chemicals. The municipal waste incinerator (MWI) is thought to be an important potential source of these chemicals in the environment. Analyses of incinerator ash and incinerator emissions have shown the presence of PCDD/Fs. Among workers of incinerator, contracted maintain workers are highest likelihood of exposure to incinerator slag and fly ash, as these workers were involved in inspections and repairs of the filter and inside the ovens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the PCDD/Fs exposure of contracted maintain workers in the MWI plants. Then we could provide the suitable suggestions for the protection of workers improvement by this finding.
In this study, three municipal waste incineration plants (A, B and C) in north of Taiwan were selected as study subjects. Serum samples of workers were collected before and after maintenance work. 48 blood samples were collected from the workers of three municipal waste incineration plants, and the serum concentrations of PCDD/Fs, biochemical test, hormone test and immunofluorescence staining were measured. At the same time, questionnaire interviews were proceed to obtain dietary habit, life style, body mass index, personal exposure data and time activity pattern.
There are 29 male and 2 female workers among the study subjects. The average maintenance times were 11.8, 6.9, and 4.6 times in plants A, B and C, and the average PCDD/Fs concentration of after work were 21.4, 26.4 and 20.5 pg-TEQ/g-lipid, respectively. The 10 biochemical tests results show that the measured values of Uric Acid (UA), Cholesterol (Chol), and Triglyceride (TG) are higher than normal value, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T3, T4, testosterone and estradiol are all in the normal range. The T4 and E2 concentration of the workers at plant B were significant lower than before work. The immunofluorescence staining results show that CD3/CD8 and CD26 markers were significant increased after maintenance work, and the results indicate that the occupational exposure may activate T cell and T-help cell immune system.
In the study, some of the immunofluorescence staining and hormone test results have significant difference before and after maintenance work. The data shows that the PCDD/Fs life average exposure concentrations of three plants were 2.7, 3.3 and 2.5 pg-I-TEQ/kg/day. The results were all in the WHO daily tolerance dose range (1~4 pg-I-TEQ/kg/day) but the PCDD/Fs average concentrations were higher than residents. We suggest that the workers should use personal respirators during working hours to avoid their exposure to PCDD/Fs.
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 緒論 4
2-2 戴奧辛產生來源 4
2-3 人類的暴露族群 6
2-4 戴奧辛的毒性作用 10
2-5 致癌風險評估 15
2-6 戴奧辛與相關化合物的毒性當量因子 15
第三章 研究材料及方法 17
3-1研究對象選取 17
3-2研究架構 17
3-3 採樣方法 20
第四章 結果與討論 35
4-1三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工戴奧辛樣品分析品保/品管數據
及基本資料分布 35
4-2 各廠歲修清爐員工各項量測調查結果 37
4-3 相關性統計分析 46
4-4 個案分析 47
4-5 致癌風險評估結果 51
第五章 結論與建議 52
5-1 結論 52
5-2 建議 56
參考文獻 58
附件一 131
附件二 137
附件三 140
附件四 141
附件五 143

圖 目 錄
圖 2-1戴奧辛與口夫喃之結構式 63
圖3-1 焚化爐歲修清爐勞工戴奧辛暴露研究架構圖 18
圖3-2 溶劑萃取-甲酸破壞 26
圖3-3 C18管柱萃取 27
圖3-4 SCX-Si淨化 28
圖3-5 FL管柱萃取 29
圖4-2-1 A、B、C三廠歲修清爐員工血中戴奧辛值分布圖 64
圖4-3-1 A、B、C三廠歲修清爐員工血中戴奧辛濃度值與年齡統計結果 65
圖4-3-2 三廠歲修清爐員工甲狀腺荷爾蒙TSH與血中戴奧辛濃度關係圖 66
圖4-3-3 三廠歲修清爐員工甲狀腺荷爾蒙T3與血中戴奧辛濃度關係圖 66
圖4-3-4 三廠歲修清爐員工甲狀腺荷爾蒙T4與血中戴奧辛濃度關係圖 67
圖4-3-5 三廠歲修清爐員工性荷爾蒙Testo與血中戴奧辛濃度關係圖 67
圖4-3-6 三廠歲修清爐員工性荷爾蒙E2與血中戴奧辛濃度關係圖 68

表 目 錄
表2-1 戴奧辛與口夫喃不同含氯數之異構物數、化學式及自然界中確實分子量 69
表2-2 先進國家環境中PCDD/Fs 之來源 70
表2-3 焚化廠員工職業暴露彙整 71
表2-4 戴奧辛毒性當量因子 72
表3-1 戴奧辛暴露之健康檢查及生化檢查項目彙整 73
表3-2 校正標準品內含化合物及濃度 75
表3-3 內標準品內含化合物及濃度 76
表3-4 淨化標準品內含化合物及濃度 76
表3-5 回收標準品內含化合物及濃度 76
表3-6 基質添加標準品內含化合物及濃度 77
表4-1-1本研究進行中精密度與回收率OPR測試結果 78
表4-1-2本研究空白試驗值 79
表4-1-3進行中精密度與回收率(OPR)規範 80
表4-1-4戴奧辛分析血清樣本回收率( ﹪) –A廠 81
表4-1-5戴奧辛分析血清樣本回收率( ﹪) –B廠進爐前 82
表4-1-6戴奧辛分析血清樣本回收率( ﹪) –B廠進爐後 83
表4-1-7戴奧辛分析血清樣本回收率( ﹪) –C廠進爐前 84
表4-1-8戴奧辛分析血清樣本回收率( ﹪) –C廠進爐後 85
表4-1-9 各焚化廠採樣分析完成表 86
表4-1-10 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工基本資料分布 87
表4-2-1 三廠清爐維修員工職業史資料 88
表4-2-2 防護具使用類型 88
表4-2-3 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工工作時間(8hr)於焚化廠之工作時程及狀況 89
表4-2-4 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工飲食習慣之狀況分布 89
表4-2-5 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工飲食頻率之狀況分布 90
表4-2-6 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工飲食用量之狀況分布 92
表4-2-7 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工各類食物飲用量之狀況分布 95
表4-2-8 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工飲食習慣之改變狀況分布 98
表4-2-9 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工健康史 101
表4-2-10 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工服藥記錄 102
表4-2-11 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工健康資料分布 103
表4-2-12 三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工進爐前後血液生化、荷爾蒙、免疫及血脂檢查結果 104
表4-2-13 B廠及C廠歲修清爐員工進爐前後血液生化、荷爾蒙、免疫及血脂檢查結果總計結果 108
表4-2-14 戴奧辛分析血清樣本當量濃度 –A廠 110
表4-2-15 戴奧辛分析血清樣本當量濃度 –B廠進爐前 112
表4-2-16 戴奧辛分析血清樣本當量濃度 –B廠進爐後 114
表4-2-17 戴奧辛分析血清樣本當量濃度 –C廠進爐前 116
表4-2-18 戴奧辛分析血清樣本當量濃度 –C廠進爐後 118
表4-2-19 三廠清爐員工進爐前後血中戴奧辛當量濃度值 120
表4-2-20 三廠清爐歲修員工血中戴奧辛當量濃度值與一般居民之比較 120
表 4-2-21三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工血液中17種PCDD/Fs分析結果 121
表 4-2-22三座焚化廠歲修清爐員工血液中17種PCDD/Fs含量分布百分比比較 123
表 4-2-23 B廠、C廠焚化廠歲修清爐員工之血液中17種PCDD/Fs分析結果比較 125
表4-2-24 B廠、C廠焚化廠歲修清爐員工血液中17種PCDD/Fs含量分布百分比比較 126
表4-2-25 B廠、C廠焚化廠歲修清爐員工進爐前後之血液中17種PCDD/Fs原始濃度分析結果比較 127
表4-3-1 B廠、C廠歲修清爐員工工作前後血中戴奧辛值與荷爾蒙變化統計總表 128
表4-3-2 B廠歲修清爐員工工作前後血中戴奧辛值與荷爾蒙變化統計總表 128
表4-3-3 C廠歲修清爐員工工作前後血中戴奧辛值與荷爾蒙變化統計總表 128
表4-4-1 血中戴奧辛濃度值較高的前三名歲修清爐員工之基本資料 129
表4-5-1 A、B、C三廠歲修清爐員工之PCDD/Fs暴露風險評估 130
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