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研究生:胡淑娟
研究生(外文):Shu-Chuan Hu
論文名稱:臺灣地區嬰兒配方奶粉中多氯戴奧辛、多氯呋喃及擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯濃度調查研究
論文名稱(外文):A Survey Study on the Concentrations of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Dioxin-like polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Baby Formulas in Taiwan
指導教授:廖寶琦廖寶琦引用關係郭育良郭育良引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pao-Chi LiaoYue-Liang Leon Guo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:多氯呋喃多氯戴奧辛暴露量評估嬰兒配方奶粉擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯
外文關鍵詞:baby formulasexposure assessmentdioxin-like PCBsPCDFsPCDDs
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多氯戴奧辛(polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDDs)、多氯呋喃(polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDFs)及多氯聯苯(polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs)是目前倍受重視之持久性有機污染物。報告指出它們對人類具有生長發育及生殖系統方面的危害,且嬰兒又較成人易受到傷害。人體內超過90%的PCDD/PCDF/PCBs是來自於食物的攝取。在臺灣只有少於30%的婦女以母乳餵養小孩,因此對於其它未吃母乳的嬰兒而言,配方奶粉是他們主要的PCDD/PCDF/PCBs暴露來源。因此本研究目的是測量臺灣地區銷售之嬰兒配方奶粉中七種PCDDs、十種PCDFs及12種擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯(dioxin-like PCBs)之濃度,並且評估從出生至第六個月,幼兒因食用配方奶粉所可能造成PCDD/PCDF/PCBs之暴露量。 本研究以問卷調查選出十種品名之配方奶粉作為研究對象,17種PCDD/PCDFs及12種擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯分析方法則分別參考美國環保署公告之方法1613B及1668A,係以高解析度氣相層析儀暨高解析度質譜儀分析其濃度。結果顯示PCDD/PCDFs及擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯的毒性當量濃度分別為0.73(±0.18)及0.33(±0.05) pg WHO98-TEQ /g-lipid。評估嬰兒在初生六個月因食入配方奶粉所造成之暴露量,PCDD/PCDFs為19 pg WHO98-TEQ/day;擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯則為9 pg WHO98-TEQ/day;相當於2.5及1.5 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day。估計在初生六個月內將食入3.3 ng WHO98-TEQ之PCDD/PCDFs及1.6 ng WHO98-TEQ擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯。
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are important persistent organic pollutants. They were reported to cause reproductive and developmental effects in human and the infant is more vulnerable than the adult. Over 90% of human exposure to PCDD/PCDF/PCBs is due to food consumption. In Taiwan, less than 30% of mothers breast-feed their babies. For those infants without breast-feeding, the baby formula is their major exposure source. The objectives of this study are to measure the concentrations of 7 PCDD, 10 PCDF, and 12 dioxin-like PCB congeners in the major baby formulas consumed in Taiwan and to assess the first 6-month exposure of PCDD/PCDF/PCBs from baby formulas consumption for infants. The list of top-ten baby formula products was obtained by questionnaires answered by nursing mothers. The 17 PCDD/PCDF and 12 dioxin-like PCB congeners are analyzed according to the US EPA Method 1613B and 1668A, respectively, using high-resolution gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The mean toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs for these baby formula products were 0.73(±0.18) and 0.33(±0.05) pg WHO98-TEQ/g-lipid, respectively. The first 6-month exposure to PCDD/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs for infants via formula consumption are 19 and 9 pg WHO98-TEQ/day, respectively. These are equal to 2.5 and 1.5 pg WHO98-TEQ/kg/day, respectively. The accumulated intake of PCDD/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 6-month period are 3.3 and 1.6 ng WHO98-TEQ, respectively.
目 錄
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
中英文名稱對照表 ix
英文全名與縮寫對照表 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究意義及重要性 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
2.1 多氯戴奧辛及多氯呋喃特性 4
2.2 多氯聯苯特性 5
2.3 戴奧辛類化合物的毒性效應 6
2.4 戴奧辛及多氯聯苯污染事件 7
2.5 食品中戴奧辛及多氯聯苯濃度分佈 9
2.6 乳製品中多氯聯苯及戴奧辛濃度 11
2.7 世界各國食品中戴奧辛管制規範 12
2.8 臺灣目前相關管制規範 12
2.9 暴露評估與危害性評估 13
第三章 研究材料與方法 17
3.1 嬰兒配方奶粉 17
3.2 溶劑、藥品及儀器設備 18
3.3 樣本前處理方法 20
3.4 高解析度氣相層析儀 23
3.5 高解析度質譜儀 24
3.6 戴奧辛標準品 25
3.7 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯標準品 27
3.8 數據計算 29
3.9 暴露量評估 30
第四章 數據品質保證及管制 32
4.1 分析儀器之靈敏度及解析度 32
4.2 檢量線的建立 33
4.3 戴奧辛樣本分析之品保品管 35
4.4 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯樣本分析之品保品管 37
第五章 結果與討論 38
5.1 萃取方法對脂含量量測的影響 38
5.2 研究樣本中戴奧辛濃度 40
5.3 研究樣本中擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯濃度 42
5.4 各種食物中總戴奧辛濃度之比較 44
5.5 配方奶粉之PCDD/PCDF/PCBs暴露量評估 45
第六章 結論 47
第七章 參考文獻 48

表 目 錄

表2-1 戴奧辛同源物之國際及世界衛生組織毒性當量因子 57
表2-2 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯同源物之毒性當量因子 58
表2-3 各國食品中戴奧辛類化合物濃度 59
表2-4 各國食品中多氯聯苯類化合物濃度 62
表3-1 戴奧辛回收標準品、內標準品及淨化標準品 64
表3-2 戴奧辛分析之時窗界定標準品 65
表3-3 戴奧辛分析之檢量線濃度範圍 66
表3-4 戴奧辛基質添加標準品添加量及回收量之規範-IPR 68
表3-5 戴奧辛基質添加標準品添加量及回收量之規範-OPR 68
表3-6 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯之檢量線濃度範圍 69
表3-7 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯之回收率及內標準品 71
表3-8 多氯聯苯基質添加標準品量及規範-IPR 72
表3-9 多氯聯苯基質添加標準品添加量及規範-OPR 73
表4-1 戴奧辛同源物之離子強度比及比值規範範圍 74
表4-2 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯同源物離子強度比及比值規範範圍76
表4-3 戴奧辛檢量線查核品管規範 77
表4-4 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯檢量線查核品管規範 78
表4-5 戴奧辛初始精確度與回收率測試結果 79
表4-6 戴奧辛進行中精確度與回收率測試結果 80
表4-7 戴奧辛重複分析結果 81
表4-8 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯實驗室空白測試結果 82
表4-9 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯初始精確度與回收率測試結果 83
表4-10 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯進行中精確度與回收率測試結果8484
表5-1 四種不同萃取方法脂含量量測結果 85
表5-2 配方奶粉基本資料與脂含量量測結果 85
表5-3 配方奶粉中多氯戴奧辛及多氯呋喃濃度 86
表5-4 配方奶粉中擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯濃度 90
表5-5 暴露評估式中各參數一覽表 93


圖 目 錄

圖2-1 擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯、多氯戴奧辛及多氯呋喃結構式 95
圖3-1 研究架構 96
圖3-2 臺南與臺中地區電話訪問調查結果 97
圖3-3 各時期每日配方奶粉飲用量 98
圖3-4 第一至六個月齡男女月中平均體重變化 98
圖4-1 某次戴奧辛之儀器靈敏度測試之結果 99
圖4-2 某次擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯之儀器靈敏度測試之結果 100
圖4-3 某次戴奧辛檢量線之解析度測試之結果 101
圖4-4 某次擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯儀器解析度測試之結果 101
圖4-5 某次戴奧辛檢量線之時窗界定圖譜 103
圖4-6 某次擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯檢量線之時窗界定圖譜 104
圖5-1 罐裝標示脂含量與萃取方法丙所測量脂含量之相關性 105
圖5-2 配方奶粉中17種戴奧辛濃度分佈圖 106
圖5-3 配方奶粉樣本中17種戴奧辛百分比分佈圖 107
圖5-4 動物油脂中17種戴奧辛百分比分佈圖 108
圖5-5 配方奶粉中擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯濃度分佈圖 109
圖5-6 各種種類食品中總戴奧辛濃度分佈圖 110
圖5-7 各時期戴奧辛與擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯每日攝入量 111
圖5-8 男女各時期戴奧辛與擬似戴奧辛之多氯聯苯暴露量 112
圖5-9 各國不同年齡層每日戴奧辛暴露量評估 113

附 件 目 錄
附件一 歐盟食品中戴奧辛管制標準 114
附件二 嬰兒食品類衛生標準 115
附件三 食品中多氯聯苯限量暫行標準 116
附件四 嬰兒每日飲食建議表 117
附件五 調查配方奶粉使用品名之電話訪問內容 118
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