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研究生:林少娟
研究生(外文):Shau-Jiuan Lin
論文名稱:靜止空氣環境中之人體吸入效率與採樣器效能探討
論文名稱(外文):The study of human aspiration efficiency and samplers performance in calm air environment
指導教授:蔡朋枝蔡朋枝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Perng-Jy Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:靜止空氣環境捕集效率吸入效率可吸入性氣膠採樣準則
外文關鍵詞:aspiration efficiencyinhalable aerosol sampling conventioncalm air environmentcollecting efficiency
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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  • 下載下載:71
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中 文 摘 要

目前工業衛生界普遍使用的可吸入性氣膠準則,其訂定時所依據的實驗數據之環境風速為1 ~ 4 m/s,而在實際的作業環境中,由於環境風速普遍低於0.3 m/s,使得可吸入性準則在此種靜止空氣環境中的適用性遭到質疑。本研究利用靜止空氣暴露腔測量人體模型之吸入效率,同時評估現今各界廣泛使用於作業環境測定的個人氣膠採樣器(37 mm closed-face、open-face採樣器、IOM採樣器)之捕集效率,並以實驗所得之數據推估其在靜止空氣環境之適用性。結果發現,在採樣器捕集效率的部分,三種採樣器與現行準則都有差異,37 mm closed-face採樣器的捕集效率曲線與Kenny et al.在1997年以及1999年之實驗數據都不甚相同,而37 mm open-face採樣器和IOM採樣器則與Kenny et al.於1997年的結果相似。三種採樣器的形狀、入口大小、配戴時與身體形成的夾角並不相同,對於氣膠的吸入量都會造成影響,有待進一步探討。本研究利用呼吸儀模擬人體三種不同的呼吸狀況(輕度、中度、重度工作)以測量人體模型之吸入效率,其吸入效率曲線雖與Hsu and Swift的研究相似,但三種呼吸狀況之吸入效率值都較低,可能是由於懸浮微粒收集方式不同所造成。因此,本研究建議應盡速訂立適用於靜止空氣環境之可吸入性準則,同時對於未來在靜止空氣環境中進行採樣器捕集效率或人體模型吸入效率之研究時,應特別考慮人體模型旋轉造成的相對速度以及採樣器配戴位置對氣膠吸入的影響。
關鍵詞:靜止空氣環境,可吸入性氣膠採樣準則,吸入效率,捕集效率
Abstract
The inhalable aerosol sampling convention is broadly used in industrial hygiene. This convention is based on experimental data conducted at environmental winspeeeds of 1 ~ 4 m/s. Some researchers questioned its application in calm air environment because of the low winspeed (usually lower than 0.3 m/s) in real workplaces. This study measures aspiration efficiencies of a manikin and sampling efficiencies of personal aerosol samplers (37 mm closed-face, open-face cassette and IOM sampler), and tried to find out a new inhalable convention for calm air environment. In the evaluation of samplers, it was found that all samplers’ collection efficiency was lower than the convention. For the 37 mm closed-face cassette, its collection efficiency was different from the result of Kenny et al. in 1997 and 1999. For the 37 mm open-face cassette and the IOM sampler, the measured results were similar to those of Kenny et al. in 1997. The difference may come from the relative velocity caused by rotating of manikin and hanging location of samplers, and the effects of sampler’s shape, size of entry and the angle between sampler and body. A breathing machine, together with a manikin, were used to simulate the breathing modes of human (light, moderate and heavy work) to develop an aspiration efficiency curve under the above three work conditions. It was found that the trend obtained from this study was similar to that of Hsu and Swift (1999), but with lower values, because of different ways in collecting particles. Basing on this study, a new inhalable convention for calm air environment should be established. In addition, future studies on investigating both the collection efficiency of sampler and aspiration efficiency of manikin should consider the effects associated with the rotating manikin and placed location of aerosol samplers.
Keywords: calm air environment, inhalable aerosol sampling convention, aspiration efficiency, collecting efficiency
目 錄

目錄1
圖目錄4
表目錄6
符號說明7
中文摘要10
英文摘要11

第一章 前言13

第二章 理論基礎15
第一節 與健康相關之氣膠採樣準則15
1.可吸入性氣膠15
2.胸腔性氣膠16
3.呼吸性氣膠16
第二節 常用之懸浮微粒個人採樣方法17
1.總粉塵採樣:37 mm採樣器17
2.可吸入性氣膠採樣器19
第三節 氣膠採樣器吸入效率預測模式21
第四節 影響懸浮微粒吸入效率與粉塵沉積量之因素30
1.紊流30
2.採樣器之器壁影響30
3.靜電力31
4.傳輸損失32
第五節 靜止或低風速環境下之氣膠吸入效率33
第三章 研究方法36
第一節 研究架構36
第二節 實驗設計與研究步驟36
一、 實驗設置36
1. 暴露腔36
2. 氣膠產生及混合區39
3. 人體模型41
4. 測試用懸浮微粒41
5. 呼吸儀43
6. 現有氣膠採樣器之測試45
二、 實驗步驟46
1. 37 mm closed-face及open-face採樣器與IOM採樣器之捕集效率46
2. 人體模型吸入效率46
第三節 數據分析47
一、 樣本秤重分析47
二、 實驗數據分析47
1. 採樣器數據分析47
2. 人體模型數據分析47
三、 研究限制47

第四章 結果與討論49
1.暴露腔中之氣膠濃度均勻性48
2.可吸入性氣膠採樣器與總氣膠採樣器之捕集效率50
(1)37 mm closed-face採樣器之捕集效率50
(2)37 mm open-face採樣器之捕集效率51
(3)IOM採樣器之捕集效率53
3. 不同呼吸狀態下之人體模型吸入效率54

第五章 結論與建議59

參考文獻60
參 考 文 獻

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