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研究生:張簡嘉壬
研究生(外文):Jia-Ren-Chang Chien
論文名稱:數位式電動輪椅/代步車控制器系統之設計與發展
論文名稱(外文):Design of Digital Controller for Powered Mobility Devices
指導教授:鍾高基鍾高基引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kao-Chi Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:醫學工程研究所碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:電動輪椅數位式控制器代步車
外文關鍵詞:scooterpowered wheelchairDigital
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電動輪椅或代步車為較嚴重神經肌肉病變之功能障礙者、老年人或慢性病患主要的日常生活行動輔具。國內高經濟價值的電動輪椅及代步車之控制器仰賴歐美進口(紐西蘭Dynamics及英國Curtis公司)。一般數位式控制器開發過程缺乏整體性(車體結機構、運動及動力驅動、馬達動力匹配等)考量設計,往往無法提昇整體效益。因此在欠缺系統規格設定、驅動力學分析模擬、操作環境及系統響應分析的研究發展及文獻參考資料情況下,無法系統化的選取適當操作控制參數及元件匹配,來開發高效能控制及易擴充性之多元化操作功能的電動輪椅或代步車。
控制器與馬達驅動裝置為影響輪椅驅動的主要因素,因此本研究系統化的研發包括:一. 應用微控制處理晶片電路、PWM驅動控制、編碼器速度迴授及控制法則的軟體演算,設計PID閉迴路速度控制器;二. 探討電動輪椅負載重量及相關國際安全規範等主要參數,並建立驅動馬達的控制設計規格,包括:馬達動力、速度及轉矩額度等;三. 馬達功能性測試及探討馬達驅動控制的特性響應、控制法則及參數選取;四. I/O擴充介面提供一般輸出入控制;五. 控制器於馬達驅動平台功能性測試。
本研究控制器現階段已完成單軸代步車控制實體雛形,硬體實體模組包括微處理器單元、操控介面、A/D、D/A、馬達驅動模組及電流檢測單元等,軟體方面以8051 C語言撰寫控制系統各單元及馬達之PID比例積分微分動作。各系統性能測試研究結果顯示:一. 在20KHz 之PWM載波頻率下系統響應為最佳值,且控制器效率表現為最佳;二. 驅動器設計規格為輸出最大耐流50A、輸出電壓範圍24V,驅動最大負載重量(平地運動) 300 kg,適用於馬達規格為1/2馬力、轉速3600 rpm及最低額定轉矩60 kg-cm之電動輪椅及代步車。
系統未來研究及改良方向,包括:擴充為電動輪椅雙軸控制系統、介面系統整合在單一晶片中、發展泛用型使用者操作介面系統。
Powered wheelchairs (W/C) and scooters are the major mobility-aided device for persons with moderate/severe physical disability and chronic diseases as well as the elderly. Domestic W/C industries fully rely on imported controllers from two major manufacturers (Dynamics of New Zealand and Curtis of England). For most controller design, it is lack of systematic consideration in W/C structure, kinematics/kinetic, dynamics driven, slope, speed, rolling resistance and motor power factors. Therefore, it has led to poor efficiency and mismatching of system components. With much more demands in matching the need of individual’ disabilities, this research was to develop an innovative design of digital controller for scooters and motors testing for improved powered mobility.
Controller and motor driver are critical to influence the powered W/C propulsion. The specific aims of this R/D project are: (1) digital controller design with MCU IC, PWM driven control, speed encoder and feedback control by software design, and PID closed-loop control; (2) investigate and establish the design specifications for motor driven control (e.g. motor power, speed, torque); (3) DC motor testing for dynamic response and to investigate control rules for motor driven; and (4) functional calibration of the designed controller on motor testing device and field testing with commercial scooters.
This project has completed a digital controller product for scooters with an axial control. Field testing by placing the controller on commercial scooters has shown good performance with a year experiment. The hardware consists of MCU, interface controller, A/D and D/A, motor driver, and current detection units. Based on 8051 C Language, the control software includes control programming for each unit and PID feedback closed-loop current control. The results of system calibration indicate that the system response and efficiency is functional well at the PWM of 20 KHz. The design specifications of digital controller and driver are output maximal tolerable current of 50A, output voltage of 24V( ±2V), maximal driven loading of 300Kg at horizontal surface, and selective PMDC motor with 1/2 horsepower, 3600 rpm and 60 kg-m. The completed digital controller design provides programmable functions for parameters setting in PID control and acceleration/deceleration strategic planning, emergency handling control and expandable capability in matching to various motors and drivers for optimal efficiency.
The future development will include functional testing of completed digital controller on motor control, investigation of motor design for powered W/C, development of powered W/C’s dynamic simulation system and implementation of torque control.
第一章 緒 論
1.1輪椅使用族群的簡介 ..................................................................1
1.2電動輪椅及代步車驅動控制型態及主要組件 ..........................2
1.3現階段電動輪椅及代步車科技 .......................................7
1.4文獻回顧 .........................................................11
1.5研究動機與目的 ...................................................13

第二章 材料與方法
2.1電動輪椅/代步車驅動之動態模式 ....................................15
2.1.1馬達動力與驅動力的關係 .........................................15
2.1.2馬達動力規格需求分析 ...........................................17
2.2馬達分類及選取考量 ...............................................18
2.2.1永磁式直流馬達模型 .............................................20
2.2.2直流馬達的等效電路模型 .........................................23
2.3控制器設計原理及元件選取考量 .....................................24
2.3.1差速器系統原理 .................................................24
2.3.2正反轉驅動型式 .................................................26
2.3.3 PWM原理及設計 .................................................28
2.3.4 PID控制系統 ..................................................32
2.3.5電流檢測系統 ..................................................35
2.4 代步車/電動輪椅控制器系統設計架構 ..............................36
2.4.1代步車控制系統架構 ............................................36
2.4.2電動輪椅控制系統架構 ..........................................40
2.5 控制器電路設計 .................................................41
2.5.1中樞系統 ......................................................41
2.5.2速度電壓參數擷取單元 ..........................................42
2.5.3前進後退檢測單元 ..............................................43
2.5.4靜止與運轉狀態檢測單元 ........................................44
2.5.5電磁煞車吸盤控制單元 ..........................................45
2.5.6 A/D轉換模組 ..................................................46
2.5.7 PWM頻寬調變模組 ..............................................47
2.5.8 D/A數位至類比轉換模組 ........................................49
2.5.9 H型馬達驅動模組 ..............................................50
2.5.10磁碟煞車驅動模組 .............................................54
2.6 Labview 量測系統架設 ...........................................55

第三章 結果與討論
3.1控制器特性測試實驗 ..............................................58
3.2控制器系統響應特性 ..............................................69
3.3控制器實體模組及安裝 ............................................70
3.4數位控制器軟體程式設計...........................................71
3.5馬達/輪椅平台測試系統 ...........................................72

第四章 結論與未來研究方向
控制器架構及性能之研究方向 .........................................80
泛用型使用者操作介面系統之研究方向 .................................81

參考文獻 ...........................................................82
附錄一 馬達實測原始資料 ...........................................85
附錄二 控制軟體程式 ...............................................88
附錄三(A) PLD 邏輯程式(周邊) ......................................95
附錄三(B) PLD 邏輯程式(Driver) ....................................97
附錄三(C) PLD 邏輯程式(D/A) .......................................99
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